Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange II
ABIDE II

The establishment of ABIDE I demonstrated the feasibility and utility of aggregating MRI data across sites. However, the complexity of the connectome, along with the substantial heterogeneity of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and initial results from ABIDE I data analyses underscore the need for even larger and better-characterized samples. Accordingly, with support of an award from the National Institute of Mental Health (R21MH107045), ABIDE II was established to further promote discovery science on the brain connectome in ASD. To date, ABIDE II has aggregated over 1000 additional datasets with greater phenotypic characterization, particularly in regard to measures of core ASD and associated symptoms. In addition, two collections include longitudinal samples of data collected from 38 individuals at two time points (1-4 year interval). To date, ABIDE II involves 19 sites - ten charter institutions and seven new members - overall donating 1114 datasets from 521 individuals with ASD and 593 controls (age range: 5-64 years). These data have been openly released to the scientific community on June 2016. In accordance with HIPAA guidelines and 1000 Functional Connectomes Project / INDI protocols, all datasets are anonymous, with no protected health information included.

Last Updated March 27, 2017.

ABIDE II Credits

Project Directors

Adriana Di Martino1, Michael P Milham2,3

Coordination

Adriana Di Martino1

Phenotypic Data Aggregation and Organization

Bosi Chen1,Tanmay Nath1, Adriana Di Martino1

Imaging Data Aggregation and Organization

David O'Connor2,3,Michael P Milham2,3
* Additional support provided by Lindsay Alexander2,3, Yuta Aoki1, Cameron Craddock2,3, Dorothea Floris1, Erica Ho2,3 and Tanmay Nath1

Website Organization

Tanmay Nath1, Bosi Chen1, Adriana Di Martino1, Michael P Milham2,3

1. Autism Spectrum Disorder Research and Clinical Program at the Child Study Center, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, New York, United States of America.
2. Center for Biomedical Imaging and Neuromodulation at the Nathan S. Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research, Orangeburg, New York, United States of America.
3. Center for the Developing Brain, at the Child Mind Institute, New York, New York, United States of America


ABIDE II Funding Acknowledgements

Primary support for the work by Adriana Di Martino and her team was provided by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH 5R21MH107045).

Primary support for the work by Michael P. Milham and his team provided by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH 5R21MH107045); Nathan S. Kline Institute of Psychiatric Research). Additional Support was provided by gifts from Joseph P. Healey, Phyllis Green and Randolph Cowen to the Child Mind Institute.

ABIDE II Collections

Investigators and Affiliations

Leslie C. Baxter, Ph.D.1, Christopher Smith, Ph.D.2, B. Blair Braden, Ph.D.1

  1. Barrow Neurological Institute (BNI)
  2. Southwest Autism Resource and Research Center (SARRC)

Acknowledgements

We are very grateful for the time and effort of our participants; without their insight and enthusiasm, this project would not be possible. We would also like to acknowledge the rest of the team who helped with this study, they are listed as follows:
Sharmeen Maze, R.T.; Tyler Glaspy, B.S.; Amiee Thompson; Vanessa Contreras, M.A.; Amanda Malligo; Haley Ciccone; Andrew Mason; Brandon Deatherage; Emily Wood; Divya Vatsa; Sam McGee, B.A

Funding

  • State of Arizona Alzheimer's Consortium (Baxter)
  • Barrow Neurological Foundation (Baxter)
  • Department of Defense (AR140105; Baxter and Smith)

Publications Related to This Dataset

    None at the time of data release.

Sample Size

Total: N = 58 (age range 18-64 years)

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD): n = 13 (18-25 years), n = 16 (40-62 years)

Typical Controls (TC): n = 10 (18-25 years), n = 19 (40-64 years)

Relation to ABIDE I and Other Data Sharing Initiatives

Relation to ABIDE I

This site did not participate in ABIDE I, its data collection is new and independent from ABIDE I.

Relation to NDAR

None of these data have been previously uploaded to NDAR.

Diagnostics and Phenotypic Assessments

Inclusion Criteria

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

Diagnosis of Autistic Disorder was based on the ASD cutoff of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-2nd edition (ADOS-2)1 by a research reliable researcher. Our participants have general intellectual abilities one standard deviation below the mean or higher, as measured by the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test-2 (KBIT-2nd edition)2.

Typical Controls (TC)

Typically developing controls (TC) completed the Social Responsiveness Scale 2nd edition (SRS-2)3 -self report form - to screen our significant autism symptoms (anyone with total T score < 60 was included). The KBIT-2 was also administered to ensure that estimated full IQ was one standard deviation below the mean. TC were also screened by unstructured detailed interview to determine absence of past or current psychiatric or neurological disorders.

Exclusion Criteria

Exclusion criteria for both ASD and TC groups were MRI scanning incompatibility and IQ scores > 1 standard deviation below the mean on the KBIT-2. The TC also were screened out if they had past or current history of psychiatric or neurologic disorders (obtained by self-report of history and current medication use), immediate family members with ASD, or other major medical illnesses that would affect brain functioning.

Assessments and Procedures

Recruitment

Participants with an ASD diagnosis were recruited primarily through the Southwest Autism Resource and Research Center, and some ASD and all TC participants were recruited from IRB approved flyers, word of mouth, media and local support groups. TC were recruited to be group-matched to the ASD participants for age. Written informed consent was obtained through institutional IRB.

Estimated IQ

All participants were administered the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test-2 (KBIT-2)2

Handedness

Handedness was assessed based on self-report.

Medication Information

All participants were asked about any current medication use at the time of MRI screening. Participants were not asked to hold medication prior to scanning.

Psychiatric Comorbidity in ASD

Information on psychiatric comorbidity was not systematically assessed.

Additional Phenotypic Information

Participants underwent additional cognitive testing on the day of the MRI, including tests of executive functioning, language, visuospatial ability, and motor functioning. Emotional status was assessed through self-report. The Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R)4, 5, Sensory Profile, and Social Responsiveness Scale - 2nd Edition (SRS-2)3, and Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II)6 were also given. Saliva samples were obtained for genetic testing. Part of these behavioral data have been shared in the present dataset.

References

  1. Lord C, Rutter M, DiLavore PC, Risi S, Gotham K, Bishop S. Autism diagnostic observation schedule: ADOS-2: Western Psychological Services Los Angeles, CA; 2012.
  2. Kaufman AS, & Kaufman, N. L. Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test, Second Edition. Bloomington, MN: Pearson, Inc. ; 2004.
  3. Constantino J, N., & Gruber, C. P. Social Responsiveness Scale, Second Edition (SRS-2). Torrance, CA: Western Psychological Services; 2012.
  4. Bodfish JW, Symons FJ, Parker DE, Lewis MH. Varieties of repetitive behavior in autism: comparisons to mental retardation. J Autism Dev Disord. 2000;30(3):237-243.
  5. Lam KS, Aman MG. The Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised: independent validation in individuals with autism spectrum disorders. J Autism Dev Disord. 2007;37(5):855-866.
  6. Beck AT, Steer RA, Brown GK. Beck depression inventory-II. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation. 1996:b9

Scan Procedures and Parameters

Preparation for the MRI Scan

Participants were screened for metal and other MRI contraindications via telephone. In addition to resting state and structural scans, all participants also performed several task-based functional MRI paradigms. Participants practiced the tasks just prior to the scan.

MRI Scanning

All participants were scanned on the same 3.0 Tesla Ingenia scanner, software version 5.1.9, 15-channel head coil. Resting state fMRI scans were always collected immediately after a localizer, right before an anatomical scan, which in turn, was followed by task-based fMRI scans. Stimulus presentation was via Nordic Neurolab goggles and headphones and the participants had a response device (button press) in the scanner. Resting state scan was collected with eyes closed. During this scan, participants were instructed to close their eyes and try not to fall asleep without thinking to hard about anything in particular, letting their mind wander. Most participants were scanned in the early or later afternoon.

MRI Modalities and Scan Parameters

MRI data shared include: MPRAGE, FLAIR, resting state fMRI and diffusion tensor imaging. Please see attachment below for specific scan parameters.

MRI Data Quality

All data were visually inspected for quality control at the time of the scan. Because this dataset is restricted to adults, movement was minimal for scans. To maximize potential utility for a boarder range of applications by users, all imaging data collected were shared regardless of motion and any type of quality.

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Investigators and Affiliations

Tonya White, MD, Ph.D.1, Henning Tiemier, MD, PhD1, Frank C. Verhulst, MD, PhD.1,2

  1. Erasmus University Medical Centre
  2. Sophia Children's Hospital

Acknowledgements

Laura Blanken, MD played a crucial role in gathering the information on ASD diagnoses. Ryan Muetzel helped clean and prepare the data for ABIDE2 sharing. The neuroimaging data was collected by a team that included Ryan Muetzel, Laura Blanken, Marcus Schmidt, Laura Blanken, Sabine Mous, Andrea Wildeboer, Sandra Thijssen, Hanan El Marroun, Desana Kocevska, Philip Jansen, Roos Bouhuis, and Nikita Schoemaker.

Funding

    This study received support from the Simons Foundation Autism Research Initiative (SFARI -307280) and a Dutch ZonMw TOP grant number 91211021 to Tonya White. MRI data acquisition was sponsored in part by the European Community's 7th Framework Programme (FP7/2008-2013, 212652). Supercomputing computations were supported by the NWO Physical Sciences Division (Exacte Wetenschappen) and SURFsara (Lisa compute cluster, www.surfsara.nl). The Generation R Study is conducted by the Erasmus Medical Center in close collaboration with the School of Law and Faculty of Social Sciences of the Erasmus University Rotterdam, the Municipal Health Service Rotterdam area, Rotterdam, the Rotterdam Homecare Foundation, Rotterdam and the Stichting Trombosedienst & Artsenlaboratorium Rijnmond (STAR-MDC), Rotterdam.

Publications Related to This Dataset

  • Blanken LM, Mous SE, Ghassabian A, Muetzel RL, Schoemaker NK, El Marroun H, van der Lugt A, Jaddoe VW, Hofman A, Verhulst FC, Tiemeier H, White T. Cortical morphology in 6- to 10-year old children with autistic traits: a population-based neuroimaging study. Am J Psychiatry. 2015;172(5):479-486.
  • White T, Muetzel R, Schmidt M, Langeslag SJ, Jaddoe V, Hofman A, Calhoun VD, Verhulst FC, Tiemeier H. Time of acquisition and network stability in pediatric resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Brain Connect. 2014;4(6):417-427.
  • White T, El Marroun H, Nijs I, Schmidt M, van der Lugt A, Wielopolki PA, Jaddoe VW, Hofman A, Krestin GP, Tiemeier H, Verhulst FC. Pediatric population-based neuroimaging and the Generation R Study: the intersection of developmental neuroscience and epidemiology. Eur J Epidemiol. 2013;28(1):99-111.

Sample Size

Total: N = 54 (age range 6-11 years)

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD): n = 27 (6-11 years)

Typical Controls (TC): n = 27 (6-10 years)

Relation to ABIDE I and Other Data Sharing Initiatives

Relation to ABIDE I

This site has not participated in ABIDE I before.

Relation to NDAR

None of these data have been previously uploaded to NDAR.

Diagnostics and Phenotypic Assessments

Inclusion Criteria

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

In the Generation R Study, medical records were examined for children that scored screen-positive in one or more of several stages of a multifaceted screening procedure. If a potential diagnosis of ASD could be confirmed through the medical records, the child was considered a clinically confirmed case of ASD. In the Netherlands, the general practitioners hold the central medical records, including information on treatment by medical specialists. A diagnosis of ASD is generally based on clinical consensus by a specialized multidisciplinary team. The diagnostic workup typically involves an extensive developmental case history obtained from parents, as well as school information and repeated observations of the child. We obtained the general practitioners’ records from children based on at least one of the following three criteria:
First, all children were formally screened with the Dutch version of the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS)1. The authors of the SRS recommend cutoffs for screening in population-based settings, which are SRS weighted scores of 1.078 for boys and 1.000 for girls. The short SRS form consists of 18-items from the following SRS subscales: social cognition, social communication and autistic mannerism; its total score has been shown to be highly correlated to the SRS total score (r=0.93 to 0.99 depending on the sample)2. Second, children that scored in the top 15% on the Child Behavior Checklist-1.5-5 (CBCL)3-total score underwent a more specific screening using the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ)4, a 40-item parent-reported screening instrument for ASD. Scores of 15 or above on the SCQ were considered screen-positive5. Information from the general practitioners was also obtained for these children. Third, psychiatric diagnoses and treatment were routinely assessed at all contact moments between ages 6 to 9. If the mother or father reported an ASD diagnosis, general practitioner records were obtained for these children.

Typical Controls (TC)

Typical developing children were recruited from the larger Generation R Study population matching on age and gender. Inclusion criteria required a SRS-weighted score below 1.078 for boys and below 1.000 for girls.

Exclusion Criteria

All children were excluded if they had a significant motor or sensory disorder (for example deaf or blind children), head trauma with loss of consciousness, severe neurological conditions, such as a seizure disorder, neuromotor disorder, or a history of brain tumors. Children with claustrophobia and contraindications for MRI scanner were also excluded.

Assessments and Procedures

Recruitment

The children who are recruited are participants of the Generation R Study. All pregnant women who were living within a well-defined region in Rotterdam (defined by postal codes) between April 2002 and January 2006 were invited to participate in the study. A total of 9,778 pregnant mothers provided informed consent and were recruited, with their unborn child, as members of the Generation R cohort. Of these mothers, a total of 6,691 (69 %) were enrolled during early pregnancy, 1,918 (19 %) during mid-pregnancy, 271 (3 %) during late pregnancy, and 898 (9 %) mothers were recruited at birth. The children and their parents have been followed prospectively with data collection occurring at multiple time points. The children participating in the neuroimaging pilot study were recruited from the larger sample of Generation R Children and oversampled for autistic traits. Further information regarding recruitment and the MRI procedure, see White et al. Eur J Epidemiol. 2013;28(1): 99-111.

Estimated IQ

Performance IQ scores were obtained using two subtests of the Snijders-Oomen Nonverbal Intelligence Test (SON-R 2, 5-7)6.

Handedness

Handedness was measured using a modified version of the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory7.

Medication Information

At the time of scanning, parents completed a form listing all currently medications and dosage that the children were currently taking.

Psychiatric Comorbidity in ASD

Children who scored above the top 15 percent on the total problems score of the CBCL, or above the top 2% in any of the symptom scale scores of the CBCL were evaluated using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children – Young Child Version (DISC-YC). In addition, a random sample of 330 screen negative children from the Generation R Study also received the DISC-YC. Thus, DISC-YC data are not available on all children from the Generation R Study who are participating in ABIDE2. For those who completed the DISC-YC, results of the diagnostic modules were used to evaluate psychiatric comorbidity based on the DSM-IV. These labels and the corresponding codes were also extracted to evaluate diagnoses using the International Classification of Diseases 9th revision (ICD-9). For further information regarding the diagnostic assessments within the Generation R Study, see Rijlaarsdam et al. (2015) Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatr 24: 1339-1348.

Additional Phenotypic Information

No additional phenotypic information is available.

Reference

  1. Constantino JN, Gruber CP. Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS). Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services; 2007.
  2. Blanken LM, Mous SE, Ghassabian A, Muetzel RL, Schoemaker NK, El Marroun H, van der Lugt A, Jaddoe VW, Hofman A, Verhulst FC. Cortical morphology in 6-to 10-year old children with autistic traits: a population-based neuroimaging study. American Journal of Psychiatry. 2015.
  3. Achenbach T, Edelbrock C. Manual for the Child Behavior Checklist and Revised Child Behavior Profile. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry 1983.
  4. Rutter M, Bailey A, Lord C. The social communication questionnaire: Manual: Western Psychological Services; 2003.
  5. Berument SK, Rutter M, Lord C, Pickles A, Bailey A. Autism screening questionnaire: diagnostic validity. The British Journal of Psychiatry. 1999;175(5):444-451.
  6. Tellegen P, Winkel M, Wijnberg-Williams B, Laros J. Snijders-Oomen Niet-Verbale Intelligentietest SON-R 2, 5-7. Handleiding [Snijders- Oomen Nonverbal Intelligence Test SON-R 2, 5-7. Manual]. Hogrefe, Gottingen. 2005.
  7. Oldfield RC. The assessment and analysis of handedness: the Edinburgh inventory. Neuropsychologia. 1971;9(1):97-113.

Scan Procedures and Parameters

Preparation for the MRI Scan

Prior to the actual MRI scanning session, children participated in a mock scanning session to introduce them to the scanning environment. The mock scanner simulates the most important aspects of the actual scanning session, including the feeling of being within the MR-bore, wearing headphones that plays recorded gradient sounds, and the ability to watch a forward-projected film via a mirror positioned on the head coil. The purpose of the mock scanning session was to provide an introduction to the scanning environment and to offer the opportunity for the child or parent to opt out of the procedure before going to the actual MRI scanner. The children and their parents were asked several questions over their anxiety level and whether they thought it was fun or not. These questions were asked before the mock scanning session, immediately after the mock scanning session, and immediately after the actual MRI scan. If, at any point, the child responded to a visual analog scale that they were either too scared or that they found it not at all fun, we stopped immediately and the child was not scanned. Data collection was also stopped based on the parents and researchers ratings of the child’s fear along the same visual analog scale; if ratings indicated that the child was too scared data collection was stopped.

MRI Scanning

MR images were acquired on a 3 Tesla scanner (General Electric Discovery MR750, Milwaukee, MI, USA) using an 8-channel head coil for signal reception. The children were able to watch a film during the structural MRI acquisition, which was the initial sequence obtained following the localizer scans. The film and sound was turned off during the resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging sequence and the children were asked to keep their eyes closed and to think about nothing in particular.

MRI Modalities and Scan Parameters

MRI data shared include: anatomical and resting state fMRI. For the specific scan parameters, please see link below.

MRI Data Quality

Consistent with the ABIDE consortium policy, to maximize potential utility for a boarder range of applications by users, all imaging data collected were shared regardless of motion and other quality parameters.

Downloads

Investigators and Affiliations

Joshua Henk Balsters , Ph.D.1, Nicole Wenderoth , Ph.D.1

  1. Neural Control of Movement Lab, ETH Zürich

Acknowledgements

We'd like to thank Rea Lehner and Dimitris Bolis for collecting the data, and Professor Louise Gallagher for helping to recruit.

Funding

  • ETH Zürich

Publications Related to This Dataset

    No peer-reviewed publications, nor presentations at the time of the release.

Sample Size

Total: N = 37 (age range 14-31 years)

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD): n = 13 (15-27 years)

Typical Controls (TC): n = 24 (14-31 years)

Relation to ABIDE I and Other Data Sharing Initiatives

Relation to ABIDE I

This is a new independent site and data collection.

Relation to NDAR

None of these data have been previously uploaded to NDAR.

Diagnostics and Phenotypic Assessments

Inclusion Criteria

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

Clinical diagnosis of ASD, which was established prior to recruitment to the study for all ASD participants, was confirmed using the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (ADOS-G)1 and the Autism Diagnostic Interview Revised (ADI-R)2, and clinical consensus diagnosis carried out by an expert clinician (Prof .Louise Gallagher).

Typical Controls (TC)

Absence of a first-degree relative with ASD and Total scores < 50 on the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) or < 10 on the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) - lifetime form were required for inclusion as TC.

Exclusion Criteria

Exclusion criteria included a Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) below 80, a history of loss of consciousness for more than five minutes.

Assessments and Procedures

Recruitment

ASD participants were recruited through an associated genetics research program, clinical services, schools, and advocacy groups. Controls were recruited through schools, the university (Trinity College Dublin), and volunteer websites. Written informed consent and parent consent with child assent for those younger than 18 were obtained from all participants in accordance with Institutional Review Board oversight.

Estimated IQ

To estimate full, verbal, and performance intelligence quotient, all participants completed the Wechsler Abbreviated intelligence scale (WASI)3.

Handedness

All right handed based on self-report.

Medication Information

No information were systematically collected on current and past history of medication use.

Psychiatric Comorbidity in ASD

No information were systematically collected on psychiatric comorbidity.

Additional Phenotypic Information

All participant's parents were asked to complete the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS)4 and the Social Communication Questionnaire-Lifetime Version (SCQ)5.

References

  1. Lord C, Risi S, Lambrecht L, Cook Jr EH, Leventhal BL, DiLavore PC, Pickles A, Rutter M. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic: A standard measure of social and communication deficits associated with the spectrum of autism. Journal of autism and developmental disorders. 2000;30(3):205-223.
  2. Lord C, Rutter M, Le Couteur A. Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised: a revised version of a diagnostic interview for caregivers of individuals with possible pervasive developmental disorders. J Autism Dev Disord. 1994;24(5):659-685.
  3. Wechsler D. Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI). San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation; 1999.
  4. Constantino JN, Gruber CP. Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS). Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services; 2007.
  5. Rutter M, Bailey A, Lord C. The social communication questionnaire: Manual: Western Psychological Services; 2003.

Scan Procedures and Parameters

Preparation for the MRI Scan

Participants practiced a social decision making task immediately before going into the MRI scanner. Immediately before the acquisition of resting state fMRI (collected after structural imaging and the social decision making task were completed) participants were reminded via the scanner intercom to remain as still as possible and fixate on a crosshair presented on the screen.

MRI Scanning

Data were collected using a 3T Phillips Achieva at Trinity College Dublin using a 32 channel head coil. A high-resolution T1-weighted anatomic magnetization-prepared rapid gradient echo image was collected prior to a social decision making task fMRI sequence (not shared here) followed by the resting state fMRI. Resting state was collected with subject's eyes open and fixated on a crosshair in the center of the screen. For the specific sequences' parameters please refer to the link below.

MRI Modalities and Scan Parameters

MRI data shared include: anatomical and resting state-fMRI. Please see attached protocols for anatomical and functional scan parameters.

MRI Data Quality

To maximize potential utility for a boarder range of applications by users, imaging data were shared regardless of movement or quality.

Downloads

Investigators and Affiliations

Chandan J. Vaidya, Ph.D.1,2and Lauren E. Kenworthy, Ph.D.2

  1. Department of Psychology, Georgetown University, Washington, DC
  2. Children's Research Institute, Children's National Medical Center, Washington DC

Acknowledgements

J. Bradley C. Cherry, J.D. and Xiaozhen You, Ph.D. assisted with compiling the dataset. Megan Norr, Stephanie Bean, and Ruth Ludlum assisted with data collection

Funding

  • National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), Grant. No. MH084961, to C. J. V.
  • Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities Research Center, Children's National Medical Center, Grant No. HD040677-07, to W. D. G. and L. E. K.

Publications Related to This Dataset

  • You, X., Norr, M., Murphy, E., Kuschner, E. S., Bal, E., Gaillard, W. D., Kenworthy, L. E., Vaidya, C. J. (2013). Atypical modulation of distant functional connectivity by cognitive state in children with autism spectrum disorders. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7:482.
  • Supekar, K., Uddin, L. Q., Khouzam, A., Phillips, J., Gaillard, W. D., Kenworthy, L. E., Yerys, B. E., Vaidya, C. J., & Menon, V. (2013). Brain hyperconnectivity in children with autism and its links to social deficits. Cell Reports, 5(3), 738-47.
  • Yerys, B. E., Gordon, E. M., Abrams, D. N., Satterthwaite, T. D., Weinblatt, R., Jankowski, K. F., Strang, J., Kenworthy, L. E., Gaillard, W. D., & Vaidya, C. J. (2015). Default mode network segregation and social deficits in autism spectrum disorder: Evidence from non-medicated children. NeuroImage: Clinical, 9, 223-232.

Sample Size

Total: N = 106 (age range 8.1-13.9 years)

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD): n = 51 (8.1-13.9years)

Typical Controls (TC): n = 55 (8.1-13.8 years)

Relation to ABIDE I and Other Data Sharing Initiatives

Relation to ABIDE I

This site did not participate in ABIDE I, thus data represent a new, independent data collection.

Relation to NDAR

None of these data have been uploaded to NDAR.

Diagnostics and Phenotypic Assessments

Inclusion Criteria

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

ASD diagnosis included DSM-IV-TR criteria applied by a trained clinician and confirmed with ADI-R1 and ADOS-G2 following the criteria established by the NICHD/NIDCD Collaborative Programs for Excellence in Autism3. These criteria require that the child meet ADI-R cutoff for autism in the social domain and at least one other domain (communication and/or repetitive behaviors and restricted interests), and meet ADOS cutoff (autism or ASD) for the combined social and communication score.

Typical Controls (TC)

Enrollment as TDC required absence of psychiatric diagnosis based on the Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory (CASI)4 or the Child Symptom Inventory (CSI)5 (see below).

Exclusion Criteria

For all participants: 1) Full-Scale IQ below 80 as measured by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV) or Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI); 2) Other neurological diagnosis (e.g., epilepsy) based on parent report; and 3) Contraindications for MRI such as metallic implants or pregnancy.

Assessments and Procedures

Recruitment

ASD participants were recruited through the Center for Autism Spectrum Disorders at Children's National Medical Center. TC participants were recruited from the Washington, DC area using advertisements placed in public venues and in pediatrician offices. All recruitment procedures were approved by the Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) of Children's National Medical Center and Georgetown University. Informed assent and consent were obtained from all participants and their caregivers using IRB-approved language and procedures.

Estimated IQ

IQ scores were obtained for all participants using either the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV)6 or Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI)7.

Handedness

Handedness was obtained by self- and parent-report.

Medication Information

Current (defined as use within three months prior to the MRI scan) use of any medications was obtained at the time of evaluation using a questionnaire developed by our laboratory. All ASD participants who were prescribed stimulant medications abstained from taking these medications for at least 24 hours before undergoing their MRI scans. Participants who were prescribed other psychoactive medications were not asked to abstain from taking these medications prior to undergoing their MRI scans. Data describing participants' use of stimulant and psychoactive medications are included in our dataset.

Psychiatric Comorbidity in ASD

Psychiatric comorbidity was not assessed directly, but may be estimated using data from the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL)8, 9 and Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory (CASI)4 or the Child Symptom Inventory (CSI)5 included in our dataset.

Additional Phenotypic Information

The CASI or the CSI was completed based on questions to the parents/legal guardians. The CSI (5-12 years) and CASI (5-18 years) are behavior ratings scales that screen for DSM-IV emotional and behavioral disorders in children. The CSI parent checklist contains 97 items that screen for 15 disorders; the CASI parent scale contains 173 items which include all items from the CSI and the Adolescent Symptom Inventory in a single measure that screen for the same 15 disorders. Output is in T scores, with 50 as mean and 10 as standard deviation; a score of 70 is considered to be clinically impaired. Parents/legal guardians also completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF)10; Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL)8, 9; Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS)11. Finally, children completed the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC)12. Scores from these questionnaires have been shared in this aggregate.

Reference

  1. Le Couteur A, Lord C, Rutter M. The autism diagnostic interview-revised (ADI-R). Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services. 2003.
  2. Gotham K, Risi S, Pickles A, Lord C. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule: revised algorithms for improved diagnostic validity. J Autism Dev Disord. 2007;37(4):613-627.
  3. Lainhart JE, Bigler ED, Bocian M, Coon H, Dinh E, Dawson G, Deutsch CK, Dunn M, Estes A, Tager-Flusberg H. Head circumference and height in autism: a study by the Collaborative Program of Excellence in Autism. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A. 2006;140(21):2257-2274.
  4. Gadow K, Sprafkin J. Child and adolescent symptom inventory-4R. Stony Brook, NY: Checkmate Plus. 2005.
  5. Gadow KD, Sprafkin JN. Child symptom inventory 4: Screening and norms manual: Checkmate Plus; 2002
  6. Wechsler D. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-WISC-IV: Psychological Corporation; 2003
  7. Wechsler D. Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI). San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation; 1999.
  8. Achenbach T, Rescorla L. Manual for the ASEBA school-age forms & profiles: an integrated system of multi-informant assessment Burlington, VT: University of Vermont. Research Center for Children, Youth, & Families. 2001.
  9. Achenbach TM, Howell CT, Quay HC, Conners CK, Bates JE. National survey of problems and competencies among four-to sixteen-year-olds: Parents' reports for normative and clinical samples. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development. 1991:i-130
  10. Gioia GA, Isquith PK, Guy SC, Kenworthy L. Test review behavior rating inventory of executive function. Child Neuropsychology. 2000;6(3):235-238.
  11. Constantino JN, Gruber CP. Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS). Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services; 2007.
  12. March JS. Manual for the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC). North Tonawanda, NY: Multi-Health Systems; 1998.

Scan Procedures and Parameters

Preparation for the MRI Scan

MRI scans were performed at the Center for Functional and Molecular Imaging at Georgetown University. Prior to undergoing their MRI scans, participants were introduced to the facility's mock scanner and given the opportunity to familiarize themselves with the experience of undergoing an MRI scan. ASD participants were further provided with a ''social story'' prior to undergoing their MRI scans. This story consisted of PowerPoint slides describing the scanning process from start to finish. Parents of ASD participants reviewed the story with the participants prior to the MRI scans. The purpose of this procedure was to ensure the experience of undergoing an MRI scan was highly predictable for ASD participants.

MRI Scanning

Echo-planar images were acquired on a Siemens Trio 3-T scanner using the parameters specified in the link below. Each participant underwent a resting state scan lasting 5 min, 14 s in which they were asked to rest with their eyes open, but to remain awake. Head motion was minimized using foam cushions placed in the space between the participant's head and the headcoil.

MRI Modalities and Scan Parameters

MRI data shared include: MPRAGE and resting state-fMRI. Note: Some T1 images available from this site were co-registered (6 degrees of freedom) to the MNI-152 template T1 image, prior to contribution. Please see attachment below for specific scan parameters.

MRI Data Quality

To maximize potential utility for a broader range of applications by users, all imaging data collected were shared regardless of motion and any type of quality.

Downloads

Investigators and Affiliations

Daniel P. Kennedy, Ph.D.1, Lisa Byrge, Ph.D.1

  1. Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA

Acknowledgements

We thank Brad Caron, Susannah Burkholder, and Patty Krempely for assistance with subject recruitment, assessment, and testing, and Hu Cheng for advice regarding MRI data acquisition parameters.

Funding

  • National Institutes of Health Grant K99MH094409/R00MH094409 (to D.P.K.)

Publications Related to This Dataset

    In preparation.

Sample Size

Total: N = 40 (age range 17-54 years)

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD): n = 20 (17-54years)

Typical Controls (TC): n = 20 (19-37 years)

Relation to ABIDE I and Other Data Sharing Initiatives

Relation to ABIDE I

This site did not participate in ABIDE I.

Relation to NDAR

None of these data have been uploaded to NDAR.

Diagnostics and Phenotypic Assessments

Inclusion Criteria

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

All ASD participants had previously received clinical diagnoses of autism, Asperger's Syndrome, or Pervasive Developmental Disorder - Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS). A DSM-IV-TR diagnosis was confirmed using the Diagnostic Observation Schedule-2 (ADOS-2)1 Module 4 together with clinical judgment. We also included participants that scored within 1 point of the published cutoffs. All ADOS-2 administrations and scoring were performed by research reliable administrators.

Typical Controls (TC)

TC were matched at the group level to ASD relative to age, sex, handedness, and full-scale IQ, and had no self-reported history of ASD, Major Depression, Schizophrenia, traumatic brain injury, or any family history of ASD.

Exclusion Criteria

Contraindications to MRI were exclusionary for all participants. We also excluded participants with full-scale IQ < 80 or self-report or clinical impression of comorbid schizophrenia, past history of Major Depression with attempted suicide, history of traumatic brain injury, and various medical conditions unrelated to ASD (e.g., muscular dystrophy, uncorrectable vision impairment).

Assessments and Procedures

Recruitment

Twenty high-functioning adults with an ASD diagnosis and 20 typical controls were recruited from our participant registry under a protocol approved by the Indiana University Institutional Review Board.

Estimated IQ

We obtained estimates of intelligence (verbal, performance, and full-scale IQ) using the four subtests of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence -second edition (WASI-II).2

Handedness

Handedness was measured based on self-report using the 10-items of the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory3 for each right and left hand Each item is scored on a scale from 2 (always right) to -2 (always left). The handedness score is the result of the sum of each item divided by 20 and multiplied by 100.

Medication Information

We did not collect information on the use of psychoactive medications at the time of scanning.

Psychiatric Comorbidity in ASD

No information was systematically collected on psychiatric comorbidity.

Additional Phenotypic Information

Participants were asked to complete three questionnaires based on self-report: the Autism Quotient (AQ)4, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)5, and the Social Responsiveness Scale, Second Edition (SRS-2)6. For the BDI, question #10 was not administered to all participants.

Reference

  1. Lord C, Rutter M, DiLavore PC, Risi S, Gotham K, Bishop S. Autism diagnostic observation schedule: ADOS-2: Western Psychological Services Los Angeles, CA; 2012.
  2. Wechsler D. Wechsler abbreviated scale of intelligence-second edition (WASI-II): Pearson; 2011.
  3. Oldfield RC. The assessment and analysis of handedness: the Edinburgh inventory. Neuropsychologia. 1971;9(1):97-113.
  4. Baron-Cohen S, Wheelwright S, Skinner R, Martin J, Clubley E. The Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ): Evidence from Asperger Syndrome/High-Functioning Autism, Malesand Females, Scientists and Mathematicians. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 2001;31(1):5-17.
  5. Beck AT, Steer RA, Brown GK. Beck depression inventory-II. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation. 1996:b9.
  6. Constantino J, N., & Gruber, C. P. Social Responsiveness Scale, Second Edition (SRS-2). Torrance, CA: Western Psychological Services; 2012.

Scan Procedures and Parameters

Preparation for the MRI Scan

Participants were given written and verbal description of the procedure at the time of obtaining consent along with verbal instructions prior to and during the scan session. We did not use a mock scan or additional preparation.

MRI Scanning

Participants were asked to lie still in the scanner, with their eyes open, while staying awake. No stimuli were shown on a black screen. Participants were instructed to remain awake with eyes open and move as little as possible. Wakefulness was monitored throughout the scan using an MR compatible video camera. Resting-state scans were acquired along with other structural scans, and prior to any task-based experiments.

MRI Modalities and Scan Parameters

MRI data shared include: anatomical and resting state fMRI. Note that the raw (not prescan normalized) images have been shared. Only the initial 433 images (approximately 6 minutes) of the full acquisition have been shared. Please see attachment below for specific scan parameters.

MRI Data Quality

To maximize potential utility for a broader range of applications by users, all imaging data collected were shared regardless of motion and other quality parameters.

Downloads


Investigators and Affiliations

R. Delorme, M.D., Ph.D.1,2, A. Beggiato, M.D.1,2,R. Toro, Ph.D.2

  1. Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Robert Debré Hospital, APHP, Paris, France
  2. Human Genetics and Cognitive Functions, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France

Acknowledgements

We thank the Departments of Radiology and Neurology of Robert Debré Hospital, APHP, Paris, France (Dr Alison M., Dr. ElMaleh M., Dr Germanaud D., Pr. Sebag G.,) for MRI parameters and acquisitions. We also thank the research assistants and psychologists (Amsellem F., Ciupa A., Poumeyreau M.) for their assistance with clinical assessment and data collection and the Unit of Human Genetics and Cognitive Functions, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France (Pr. Bourgeron T.). We are grateful to all the patients and controls who participated in this research.

Funding

  • This collection was funded by the Institut Pasteur, CNRS, INSERM, AP-HP, University Paris 7 Diderot, the BioPsy Labex, the DHU PROTECT, the Bettencourt-Schueller Foundation, the FondaMental Foundation, the ANR (SynDiv).

Publications Related to This Dataset

The following publications include some of the data shared in this data collection:
  • Maruani A, Huguet G, Beggiato A, ElMaleh M, Toro R, Leblond CS, Mathieu A, Amsellem F, Lemiére N, Verloes A, Leboyer M, Gillberg C, Bourgeron T, Delorme R. (2015) 11q24.2-25 micro-rearrangements in autism spectrum disorders: Relation to brain structures.Am J Med Genet A. 2015 Sep 3.
  • Beggiato A., Amsellem F., El Malleh M., Bourgeron T., Delorme R., Toro R. A comparison of intracranial and brain volume between autistic patients, relatives and controls. Annual meeting of the Organization for Human Brain Mapping 2014.
  • Boisgontier J., Beggiato A., Toro R., Poupon C., Ansellem F., Duclap D., Lefebvre A., Scimia N., Letellier L., Leboyer M., Bourgeron T., Elmaleh M., Sebag G., Delorme R., Houenou J. Altered cingulum connectivity in first­ degree relatives of subjects with ASD: A whole­ brain tractography pilot study. Conference Abstract. Annual meeting of the Organization for Human Brain Mapping 2014.

Sample Size

Total: N = 56 (age range 6-47 years)

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD): n = 22 (6-27 years)
Typical Controls (TC): n = 34 (8-47 years)

Relation to ABIDE I and Other Data Sharing Initiatives

Relation to ABIDE I

This site did not participate in ABIDE I. This is a new independent site and data collection.

Relation to NDAR

None of these data have been previously uploaded to NDAR.

Diagnostics and Phenotypic Assessments

Inclusion Criteria

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

To be included in the ASD group, diagnosis of ASD was consistent with DSM-IV-TR or DSM-5 criteria, which were used prospectively (even prior to official publication of DSM-5, we applied the main DSM5 criteria that were available to us). We used the French version (B. Rogé et al; Hogrefe Editions) of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R)1 and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS)2 for clinical evaluation. All ADI-R and ADOS were administered and scored by research reliable personnel. IQ> 40 was also required.

Typical Controls (TC)

Typical controls were volunteers, systematically assessed through the Diagnostic interview for genetic studies (DIGS)3 for adults, or the Kiddie-Sads-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL)4 for children. Absence of personal or a familial history of ASD, psychiatric and neurological conditions per self or parent report at the time of the inclusion, and IQ> 70 were required.

Exclusion Criteria

Contra indications to MRI, a personal history of traumatic brain injury, other neurological conditions, severe prematurity (<1850g at birth) or epilepsy were exclusionary for all participants.

Assessments and Procedures

Recruitment

Participants with ASD were referred from the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Department (Robert Debré Hospital, Paris, France). Typical Controls were recruited from the general community through flyers and announcements. Both were included in the C0733 cohort (a study approved by the local IRB). Data were collected following written informed consent from all of them or from their legal guardians. We systematically proposed to all subjects included in the original study to allow us to share their de-identified data as part of the ABIDE initiative. Twenty two individuals with ASD and 34 typical controls assented.

Estimated IQ

We estimated intelligence (total, performance and verbal IQ) using the four subtests of the French version (ECPA editions) of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI)5, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV, Full Scale)6, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-IV)7 or the Raven Standard Progressive Matrices8. Tests varied due to the participants' age or history.

Handedness

Handedness was collected based on self-report.

Medication Information

Data on current, defined within 3 month, and past medical status/history (any type of medication) were obtained by the participating individuals (for adults) or their relatives. Information on psychoactive medications is reported in this dataset.

Psychiatric Comorbidity in ASD

Psychiatric comorbidities were systematically assessed through the Diagnostic interview for genetic studies (DIGS)3 for adults, or the Kiddie-Sads-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL)4 for children.

Additional Phenotypic Information

Participants (for adults) and their relatives (for children) completed the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R)9, 10.

References

  1. Rogé B, Fombonne E, Fremolle J, Arti E. Adaptation française de l'ADI-R: Entretien pour le diagnostic de l'autisme-Forme révisée. Editions Hogrefe. 2011.
  2. Rogé B, Fombonne E, Fremolle J, Arti E. Adaptation française de l'ADOS: Echelle d'observation pour le diagnostic de l'autisme: Editions Hogrefe. View Article PubMed/NCBI Google Scholar. 2009.
  3. Preisig M, Fenton BT, Matthey M-L, Berney A, Ferrero F. Diagnostic interview for genetic studies (DIGS): inter-rater and test-retest reliability of the French version. European archives of psychiatry and clinical neuroscience. 1999;249(4):174-179.
  4. Kaufman J, Birmaher B, Brent D, Rao U, Flynn C, Moreci P, Williamson D, Ryan N. Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL): initial reliability and validity data. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1997;36(7):980-988.
  5. Wechsler D. Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI). San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation; 1999.
  6. Wechsler D. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-WISC-IV: Psychological Corporation; 2003.
  7. Wechsler D, Coalson DL, Raiford SE. WAIS-IV: Wechsler adult intelligence scale: Pearson San Antonio, TX; 2008.
  8. Raven JC, Lewis H. Standard Progressive Matrices: Sets A, B, C, D & E: Oxford Psychologists Press; 1996.
  9. Lam KS, Aman MG. The Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised: independent validation in individuals with autism spectrum disorders. J Autism Dev Disord. 2007;37(5):855-866.
  10. Bodfish JW, Symons FJ, Parker DE, Lewis MH. Varieties of repetitive behavior in autism: comparisons to mental retardation. J Autism Dev Disord. 2000;30(3):237-243.

Scan Procedures and Parameters

Preparation for the MRI Scan

Participants were verbally instructed about the scan experience both before and during scanning.

MRI Scanning

Participants were asked to lie still in the scanner, with their eyes closed. No stimuli were shown on the screen. Subjects may have fallen asleep during the scans. A foam padding was placed within the head coil to limit movement during the scan. Resting-state scans were acquired after 3DT1 scans and before DTI scans, no task-based experiments were completed.

MRI Modalities and Scan Parameters

MRI data shared include: MPRAGE and resting state fMRI. Please, see attached protocols for the specific sequences' parameters.

MRI Data Quality

To maximize potential utility for a broader range of applications by users, all imaging data collected were shared, regardless of motion and quality.

Downloads

Investigators and Affiliations

Kaat Alaerts, Ph.D.1, Claudia Dillen1, Sylvie Bernaerts1, Jellina Prinsen1

  1. University of Leuven, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium

Acknowledgements

We are grateful to all the subjects who voluntarily participated in this research and to all the members of Leuven Autism Research Consortium (LAuRes) for their help in this work.

Funding

  • Branco Weiss fellowship of the Society in Science - ETH Zürich.
  • Marguerite-Marie Delacroix Foundation
  • Flanders Fund for Scientific Research (FWO projects 1521313N & G.0401.12)
  • FWO postdoctoral research fellowship (1206013N)

Publications Related to This Dataset

    Conference Abstract
  • Oxytocin-based pharmacotherapy for Autism Spectrum Disorders: Investigating the immediate and long-term effects from a neural and behavioral perspective. Bernaerts S. & Prinsen J., Dillen C., Berra E., Brams S., Wenderoth N., Alaerts K. International Meeting for Autism Research (IMFAR), Baltimore (May 2016)

Sample Size

Total: N = 28 (age range 18-35 years)

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD): n = 28 (18-25 years)

Relation to ABIDE I and Other Data Sharing Initiatives

Relation to ABIDE I

This site participated in ABIDE I. The present data collection represents newly collected data from independent participants. Data released in ABIDE I (referred to as Leuven Sample 1 and Leuven Sample 2) and those released in ABIDE II (referred to as KUL_3) have different inclusion criteria, study design and MRI scan protocols; as such these collections should be considered independent.

Relation to NDAR

None of these data have been previously uploaded to NDAR.

Diagnostics and Phenotypic Assessments

Inclusion Criteria

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

Participants with ASD were selected from a clinical sample, diagnosed based on DSM-IV-TR criteria by a multidisciplinary team. Inclusion criteria for the ASD group were: (i) a clinician's based diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder, (ii) age between 18 and 35 years, (iii) being male

Typical Controls (TC)

No typical controls were recruited, since the contributed data originate from a within-subject study design.

Exclusion Criteria

Exclusion criteria for participants with ASD were: comorbidity of depression or anxiety and any contraindication for MRI research.

Assessments and Procedures

Recruitment

Participants with an Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) were mainly recruited from the Expertise Centrum Autism (ECA) at the Leuven University Hospital. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants prior to the experiment. Consent forms and study design were approved by the local Ethics Committee for Biomedical Research at the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven in accordance to the Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki).

Estimated IQ

We obtained estimates of intelligence (total, performance, and verbal IQ) using the 6-subtest short-version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV (visual puzzels, block design ; vocabulary and similarities, digit span, symbol search) - Dutch version (WAIS-IV-NL)1. Scores for the subtest visual puzzles and block design were used to estimate Performance IQ (PIQ), while those from vocabulary and similarities served to estimate Verbal IQ (VIQ). One participant's IQ (indicated in the dataset) was tested using 10 subtests of the of the WAIS-IV-NL (the six mentioned above plus information, matrix reasoning, arithmetic and coding subtests). In this case, scores from the subtests information and matrix reasoning contributed to the VIQ and PIQ, respectively along with the subtests listed above for PIQ and VIQ.

Handedness

Handedness was assessed based on self-report.

Medication Information

Information on current psychoactive medication use (defined as use within three months before study enrollment) was collected.

Psychiatric Comorbidity in ASD

Presence of other comorbid psychiatric disorders was screened through self-report by explicitly asking to report prior psychiatric or neurodevelopmental diagnoses (with the explicit mentioning of examples in the screening interview including ADHD, depression, dyscalculia, dyslexia).

Additional Phenotypic Information

The Social Responsiveness Scale-Adult version - Dutch version (SRS-A) was completed by an informant in most cases, and by self-report when informant was not available. For this latter cases standardized score are not available (but raw scores are) because the SRS has not been standardized for self-ratings. Additionally, the Dutch SRS version has a specific subscale structure (4 factors instead the 5 from the original) thus only the subscales common across sites have been reported. The Repetitive Behavior Scale -Revised (self-reported, Dutch version)2, 3 was also administered to all participants. Scores from all these questionnaires along with the research reliable scores for the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (ADOS-G)4 have been shared in this aggregate.

References

  1. Wechsler D. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Dutch version (WAIS-IV-NL). Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Pearson; 1997.
  2. Lam KS, Aman MG. The Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised: independent validation in individuals with autism spectrum disorders. J Autism Dev Disord. 2007;37(5):855-866.
  3. Bodfish JW, Symons FJ, Parker DE, Lewis MH. Varieties of repetitive behavior in autism: comparisons to mental retardation. J Autism Dev Disord. 2000;30(3):237-243.
  4. Lord C, Rutter M, DiLavore PC, Risi S. Autism diagnostic observation schedule-WPS (ADOS-WPS). Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services. 1999.

Scan Procedures and Parameters

Preparation for the MRI Scan

The majority of subjects were familiar with the MRI scan environment from participation in previous research at the KU Leuven. Verbal instructions were also provided prior to the actual scan session.

MRI Scanning

Anatomical and resting state fMRI scans were acquired on a 3.0 Tesla Philips MR scanner with a 32-channel phased-array head coil. Scan sessions started with the acquisition of the anatomical followed by the resting state scan (in turn followed by two task-related fMRI runs). During the resting state scan, participants were instructed to relax, fixate on a white cross (against a black background) and think of nothing in particular.

MRI Modalities and Scan Parameters

MRI data shared include: anatomical and resting state fMRI. Please see attached protocols for anatomical and functional scan parameters.

MRI Data Quality

All high resolution and EPI images were internally reviewed for quality control by research staff members. As datasets with a wide range of image quality are being shared, only the most extreme cases of movement were excluded from this sample.

Downloads

Investigators and Affiliations

Stewart H. Mostofsky, M.D.1,2,3, Mary Beth Nebel, Ph.D.1,2

  1. Center for Neurodevelopmental and Imaging Research, Kennedy Krieger Institute.
  2. Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine.
  3. Department of Psychiatry, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine.

Acknowledgements

Brian Caffo, Deana Crocetti, Benjamin Dirlikov, Mary Martinelli, Daniel Peterson, James, Pekar, Alyssa Tiedemann, and Kristie Sweeney.

Funding

    This research was supported by grants from Autism Speaks, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (Grant No. R01 NS048527), and the National Institute of Mental Health (Grant Nos. R01 MH085328 and R01 MH078160).

Publications Related to This Dataset

  • Nebel MB, Joel SE, Muschelli J, Barber A, Caffo B, Pekar JJ & Mostofsky S. Disruption of functional organization within the primary motor cortex in children with autism. Human Brain Mapping. 2014; 35: 567-580.
  • Muschelli J, Nebel, MB, Caffo B, Barber A, Pekar JJ, & Mostofsky S. Reduction of motion-related artifacts in resting state fMRI using aCompCor. NeuroImage. 2014; 96: 22-35
  • Mahajan R, Dirlikov B, Crocetti D, Mostofsky SH. Motor Circuit Anatomy in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder With or Without Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Autism research: official journal of the International Society for Autism Research. 2015 May 11.
  • D'Mello AM, Crocetti D, Mostofsky SH & Stoodley CJ. Cerebellar gray matter and lobular volumes correlate with core autism symptoms. NeuroImage: Clinical 2015; 7: 631-639.
  • Nebel MB, Eloyan A, Nettles CA, Sweeney KL, Ament K, Ward RE, Choe AS, Barber AD, Pekar JJ & Mostofsky SH. Intrinsic Visual-Motor Synchrony Correlates With Social Deficits in Autism. Biological Psychiatry. 2016; 79(8): 633-41.

Sample Size

Total: N = 211 (age range 8-13 years)

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD): n = 56 (8-13 years)

Typical Controls (TC): n = 155 (8-13 years)

Relation to ABIDE I and Other Data Sharing Initiatives

Relation to ABIDE I

This site participated in ABIDE I; the present data collection represents newly collected data from independent participants. The protocols utilized are highly similar to the ABIDE I KKI data collection (though some individuals were scanned using a head coil with 32 channels instead of 8 channels- see scan parameters below). Thus, if needed, most data from these two KKI collections can be merged.

Relation to NDAR

None of these data have been uploaded to NDAR.

Diagnostics and Phenotypic Assessments

Inclusion Criteria

Children were eligible to participate if they met the following criteria: a) between age 8 years, 0 months to 12 years, 11 months, 30 days; b) informed consent was provided by a parent or guardian and assent was provided by the child; and (c) a Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - IV (WISC-IV)1 or WISC-V2 Full Scale IQ > than 80, unless there is a 12 point or greater index discrepancy, in which case the Verbal Comprehension Index (WISC-IV or WISC-V), Perceptual Reasoning Index (WISC-IV) or the Visual Spatial Index or Fluid Reasoning Index (WISC-V) must be > 80 and the lower of the indices must be > 65.

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

All diagnoses were confirmed using the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R)3 and/or the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (ADOS-G)4 module 3 or the ADOS-25 module 3, administered by master's level or higher research reliable psychologists. All participants met criteria for ASD based on the ADOS-G and/or ADI-R and the clinical impression of a child neurologist with extensive experience in autism diagnosis (S.H.M.).

Typical Controls (TC)

Children were not included as TC if they had a first-degree relative with ASD or if parent responses to either the Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents-IV (DICA-IV)6 or for more recent subjects (N=6), the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children - Lifetime Version (Kiddie-SADS-PL 2013)7, revealed a history of a developmental or psychiatric disorder, with the exception of simple phobias. The Kiddie-SADS-PL 2013 Working Draft has been revised from prior versions of the Kiddie-SADS to combine dimensional and categorical assessment approaches to diagnose current and past episodes of psychopathology in children and adolescents according to DSM-5 criteria.

Exclusion Criteria

Children were excluded if there was (a) presence or history of a definitive neurologic disorder including seizures (except for uncomplicated brief febrile seizures), tumor, severe head injury, stroke, lesion, or disease; (b) presence of a severe chronic medical disorder; (c) presence of a major visual impairment; (d) history of alcohol/substance abuse or dependency; (e) conditions that contraindicate or make it difficult to obtain MRI (cardiac pacemaker, surgical clips in the brain or blood vessels, dental braces, etc.); or (f) they had reached developmental level of 3 or above on the Physical Development Scale8 . Children with ASD were excluded if they had identifiable causes of autism based on parent responses during an initial phone screening. Children were excluded from the TC group if they were taking psychotropic medication or met criteria for diagnosis of a learning disability based on WIAT-II word reading scores being significantly discrepant from their Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ).

Assessments and Procedures

Recruitment

Participants were recruited as part of an on-going study conducted by the Center for Neurodevelopment and Imaging Research (CNIR) at the Kennedy Krieger Institute (KKI). Sources of recruitment included advertisements posted in the community, local pediatricians' and psychologists' offices, local schools, social service organizations, chapters of the Autism Society of America, the Interactive Autism Network (IAN) database, outpatient clinics at KKI, and word of mouth. This study was approved by the Johns Hopkins Medical Institutional Review Board. Written consent was obtained from a parent/guardian and assent was obtained from each child. Testing was distributed over two onsite study visits. On average, the time between onsite visits was 13.5 days and never exceeded 7 months.

Estimated IQ

Intellectual ability was assessed using either the WISC-IV or the WISC-V. The WISC-IV is comprised of ten core subtests which generate an FSIQ, as well as four composite scores known as indices: Verbal Comprehension (VCI), Perceptual Reasoning (PRI), Processing Speed (PSI) and Working Memory (WMI). The WISC-V is also comprised of ten core subtests which generate an FSIQ, as well as five composite scores: Verbal Comprehension (VCI), Visual Spatial (VSI), Fluid Reasoning (FRI), Processing Speed (PSI) and Working Memory (WMI). The VCI and PRI/VSI scores were provided to populate VIQ and PIQ fields in the shared dataset, respectively.

Handedness

Handedness was determined using the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory9, which is a 12-item questionnaire used to assess dominance of a person's right or left hand in everyday activities.

Medication Information

Current use of any medications was obtained at the time of evaluation using a medical and developmental history questionnaire developed by our laboratory. The questionnaire provides a comprehensive review of the child's birth and medical history, and developmental milestones. To avoid effects on cognitive and behavioral measures, stimulant medications were discontinued the day prior to or of testing/scanning. Participants were, however, allowed to continue treatment with other psychotropic medications that would normally require a longer washout period, for both ethical and practical reasons.

Psychiatric Comorbidity in ASD

Presence of other comorbid psychiatric disorders was also assessed using either the DICA-IV or the Kiddie-SADS-PL 2013, depending on the time of examination. For 51 of the 58 children with ASD, comorbid diagnosis of ADHD was based on DSM-IV criteria using DICA-IV; for the remaining seven, it was based on DSM-5 criteria using the Kiddie-SADS-PL 2013. A comorbid ADHD diagnosis was confirmed by the following criteria: (1) an ADHD diagnosis on the DICA-IV or the Kiddie-SADS-PL 2013 and (2) a T-score of 65 or higher on scale L (DSM-IV: inattentive) and/or M (DSM-IV: hyperactive-impulsive) on the CPRS-R:L or CTRS-R:L, when available or a T-score of 65 or higher on Inattentive Presentation and/or Hyperactive-Impulsive Presentation on the Conners Rating Scales-3 (CRS-3)10 Parent or CRS-3 Teacher, or a score of 2 or 3 on at least 6/9 items on the Inattentive and/or Hyperactivity/Impulsivity scales of the ADHD-RS. Final confirmation was based on clinical judgment of the investigators.

Additional Phenotypic Information

A range of additional measures were collected as part of the ongoing study at KKI at one of the two onsite visits. A list of participant IDs and date of collection for each measure is provided with the phenotypic information. Those shared in this repository include the following: the parent rated Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R)11, Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL)12, Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning (BRIEF)13, the Behavior Assessment System for Children- Second Edition (BASC-2)14, the Social Responsiveness Scales (SRS)15 or the Social Responsiveness Scales-2 (SRS-2).16

References

  1. Wechsler D. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-WISC-IV: Psychological Corporation; 2003.
  2. Wechsler D. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fifth Edition (WISC-V): Psychological Corporation; 2014.
  3. Lord C, Rutter M, Le Couteur A. Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised: a revised version of a diagnostic interview for caregivers of individuals with possible pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of autism and developmental disorders. 1994;24(5):659-685.
  4. Lord C, Rutter M, DiLavore PC, Risi S. Autism diagnostic observation schedule-WPS (ADOS-WPS). Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services. 1999.
  5. Lord C, Rutter M, DiLavore PC, Risi S, Gotham K, Bishop S. Autism diagnostic observation schedule: ADOS-2: Western Psychological Services Los Angeles, CA; 2012.
  6. Reich W, Welner, Z., Herjanic, B. The Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents-IV. North Tonawanda: Multi-Health Systems; 1997.
  7. Kaufman J, Birmaher, B., Axelson, D., Perepletchikova, F., Brent, D., & Ryan, N. . Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children - Lifetime Version (Kiddie-SADS-PL 2013 Working Draft).
  8. Carskadon MA, Acebo C. A self-administered rating scale for pubertal development. Journal of Adolescent Health. 1993;14(3):190-195.
  9. Oldfield RC. The assessment and analysis of handedness: the Edinburgh inventory. Neuropsychologia. 1971;9(1):97-113.
  10. Conners CK. Conners 3rd edition: Multi-Health Systems Toronto,, Ontario, Canada; 2008.
  11. Bodfish JW, Symons FJ, Parker DE, Lewis MH. Varieties of repetitive behavior in autism: comparisons to mental retardation. J Autism Dev Disord. 2000;30(3):237-243.
  12. Achenbach TM, Howell CT, Quay HC, Conners CK, Bates JE. National survey of problems and competencies among four-to sixteen-year-olds: Parents' reports for normative and clinical samples. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development. 1991:i-130.
  13. Gioia GA, Isquith PK, Guy SC, Kenworthy L. Test review behavior rating inventory of executive function. Child Neuropsychology. 2000;6(3):235-238.
  14. Reynolds CR, Kamphaus RW. BASC-2: Behavior assessment system for children; 2004.
  15. Constantino JN, Gruber CP. Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS). Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services; 2007.
  16. Constantino J, N., & Gruber, C. P. Social Responsiveness Scale, Second Edition (SRS-2). Torrance, CA: Western Psychological Services; 2012.

Scan Procedures and Parameters

Preparation for the MRI Scan

Children completed a mock scan during their first visit to acclimatize to the scanning environment. Eight of the 213 children completed their MRI session on the same day as their mock scan; the remaining 205 children completed their MRI session during their second on-site visit, which on average was 12.9 days after the mock session.

MRI Scanning

Scanning was conducted at the F. M. Kirby Research Center for Functional Brain Imaging on one of two Philips 3T scanners (Achieva; Philips Healthcare, Best, The Netherlands) using either an 8-channel (N=152) or a 32-channel (N=61) phased array head coil (see links below for the list of subjects and the specific head coil used). One resting state fMRI scan was collected either prior or after structural scans (see below for a link of the rest anatomical acquisition order by individual ID). During the resting state scan, children were instructed to relax and focus on a crosshair while remaining as still as possible. During the MPRAGE, children were allowed to watch a movie of their choosing.

MRI Modalities and Scan Parameters

MRI data shared include: MPRAGE and resting state-fMRI. Note: as mentioned above two receiving head coils were used. See below for a link of the R-fMRI and anatomical acquisition order and head coils used by individual ID along with links to the specific scan parameters.

MRI Data Quality

All MPRAGE and EPI images were internally reviewed for quality control by research staff members. As datasets with a wide range of image quality are being shared, only the most extreme cases of movement were excluded from this sample.

Downloads

Investigators and Affiliations

Adriana Di Martino, M.D.1, F. Xavier Castellanos, M.D.1,2,Michael P. Milham, M.D., Ph.D.2,3,Clare Kelly, Ph.D.4

  1. The Child Study Center, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, USA
  2. Nathan Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research, Orangeburg, NY, USA
  3. Child Mind Institute, New York, NY, USA
  4. Trinity College Dublin, The University of Dublin, Dublin, Ireland

Acknowledgements

We are profoundly grateful to the children, their parents and the adults who participated in our research studies. We further acknowledge the research assistants, postdoctoral fellows, clinical evaluators, interns, and medical students who helped in one or more aspects of the research including recruitment, data collection, data entry, data-basing, and helpful discussions. They are listed alphabetically as follows:
Nicoletta Adamo, M.D; Samantha Adelsberg, B.A.; Yuta Aoki, M.D., Ph.D.; Samantha Ashinoff, B.S.; Emily Becker-Wideman, Ph.D.; Emily Brady, B.S.; Hallie Brown, B.A.; Bosi Chen, B.A.; Christine Cox, Ph.D.; Alexandra Degeorge, Psy.D.; Erin Denio, B.A.; Virginia DeSanctis Ph.D.; Andrea Devoto, Rebecca Doggett Ph.D.; Dorothea Floris, Ph.D.; Monica Gordillo, B.A.; Carolyn Kessler, Ph.D.; Sarah Kern, M.S.W.; Sarah Kuriakose, Ph.D.; Maki Koyama, Ph.D.; Caila Lavine, B.A.; Dana Levy, Ph.D.; Abigail Mengers, B.A.; Andrea McLaughlin, Ph.D.; Tanmay Nath, Ph.D.; Kritika Nayar, B.S.; Matthew O'Neale; Shravani Pathak, B.A.; Jennifer Rodman, Ph.D.; Matthew Roth, Ph.D.; Amy K. Roy, Ph.D.; Rebecca Shalev, Ph.D.; Sharad Sikka, M.S.; Dillon Sharp, B.A.; Krishna Somandepalli M.S.E.C.E.; Emma Stanislawski, B.A.; Katherine Sullivan, Ph.D.

Funding

  • NIH (R21MH102660; K23MH087770; R21MH084126; R01MH081218; R01HD065282).
  • The Stavros Niarchos Foundation
  • The Leon Levy Foundation
  • An endowment provided by Phyllis Green and Randolph Cõwen
  • Goldman Sachs Gives on behalf of Ram Sundaram

Publications Related to This Dataset

The following publications included some of the data shared in this data collection.
  • Adamo N, Huo L, Adelsberg S, Petkova E, Castellanos FX, Di Martino A. Response time intra-subject variability: commonalities between children with autism spectrum disorders and children with ADHD. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 2014;23(2):69-79.
  • García Murillo L, Cortese S, Anderson D, Di Martino A, Castellanos FX. Locomotor activity measures in the diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Meta-analyses and new findings. Journal of Neuroscience Methods. 2015;252:14-26.
  • Hulvershorn LA, Mennes M, Castellanos FX, Di Martino A, Milham MP, Hummer TA, Roy AK. Abnormal amygdala functional connectivity associated with emotional lability in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 2014;53(3):351-361.e351.
  • Koyama MS, Di Martino A, Kelly C, Jutagir DR, Sunshine J, Schwartz SJ, Castellanos FX, Milham MP. Cortical signatures of dyslexia and remediation: an intrinsic functional connectivity approach. PloS ONE. 2013;8(2):e55454.
  • Somandepalli K, Kelly C, Reiss PT, Zuo X-N, Craddock RC, Yan C-G, Petkova E, Castellanos FX, Milham MP, Di Martino A. Short-term test–retest reliability of resting state fMRI metrics in children with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience. 2015;15:83-93.
  • Yoncheva YN, Somandepalli K, Reiss PT, Kelly C, Di Martino A, Lazar M, Zhou J, Milham MP, Castellanos FX. Mode of anisotropy reveals global diffusion alterations in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 2016;55(2):137-145.

Sample Size

Total: N = 78 (age range 5.2-34.8 years)

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD): n = 48 (5.2-34.8 years)

Typical Control (TC): n = 30 (5.9-23.8 years)

Relation to ABIDE I and Other Data Sharing Initiatives

Relation to ABIDE I

This site participated in ABIDE I; the present data represent newly collected data from independent participants. These data can be merged with the NYU ABIDE I collection, if needed, because of overlaps in phenotypic characterization and scan parameters.

Relation to NDAR

Some of the data corresponding to children with ASD between ages 5 and 12 years in this data collection have also been uploaded to NDAR. In those cases, NDAR GUIDs are shared.

Diagnostics and Phenotypic Assessments

Inclusion Criteria

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

Inclusion as a participant with ASD required a clinician's DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of Autistic Disorder, Asperger's Disorder, or Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not-Otherwise-Specified or DSM-5 diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder, for those enrolled after the DSM-5 release in 2013. In such cases, clinicians reviewed the case diagnoses using both DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 codes, both of which are provided. Diagnosis was supported by review of available records, an Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule1-4, review of the participant's history, and when possible, an Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised5.

Typical Controls (TC)

Inclusion as a TC was first based on the absence of any current Axis-I disorders based on the Kiddie-SADS-Present and Lifetime Version (KSADS-PL)6 administered to each child and his/her parent(s). For adults, diagnoses were based on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders Non-patient Edition (SCID-I/NP)7 and the Adult ADHD Clinical Diagnostic Scale (ACDS) interviews. TC were selected from a database of eligible participants to group-match the datasets of individuals with ASD on age and sex.

Exclusion Criteria

For all groups, current chronic systemic medical conditions, contraindications to MRI scanning, pregnancy (confirmed by a pregnancy test conducted the day of the scan) and use of antipsychotics were exclusionary.

Assessments and Procedures

Recruitment

Participants were recruited in New York City and surrounding areas through Institutional Review Board (IRB) approved flyers, magazine and web advertisements, parent support groups, referrals from NYU Child Study Center clinical services, and by word of mouth. Written informed consent and child assent were obtained from all participants in accordance with NYU School of Medicine IRB oversight.

Estimated IQ

We obtained estimates of intelligence (full, performance and verbal IQ) using the four subtests of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI)8 or the six subtests of the Differential Ability Scales, Second Edition (DAS-II)9. The specific information is reflected in the shared phenotypic dataset.

Academic Achievement

Participants were administered three subtests of the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Second Edition (WIAT-II)10.

Handedness

We used the 22 item Edinburgh Handedness Inventory11. For each item, participants were asked if they use the right, left, or both hands to complete a particular task. The sum of the right-hand responses minus the sum of the left hand responses divided by the total number of unilateral responses multiplied by 100 provided a total handedness score ranging from 100 (strongest right handedness) to -100 (strongest left handedness).

Medication Information

Information about past and current psychoactive treatment was collected both at the initial assessment and again at the day of scan. Participants being treated with stimulants were asked to withhold them for 24 hours prior to the scan, subject to treating physician approval. Current medication status and whether participants were off stimulants at least 24 hours prior to the MRI scan are marked in the database.

Psychiatric Comorbidity in ASD

To assess psychopathology for differential diagnosis and to determine psychiatric comorbidity with Axis-I disorders, diagnostic assessments also included: 1) parent interview using the Schedule of Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for Children-Present and Lifetime Version (KSADS-PL)6 for children (<17.9 years of age); 2) participant interview using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis-I Disorders, Non-patient Edition (SCID-I/NP)7 and the Adult ADHD Clinical Diagnostic Scale (ACDS) for adults (>18.0 years of age). Of note, comorbid ADHD in individuals with ASD evaluated under DSM-IV-TR was based on meeting all criteria for ADHD except for DSM-IV-TR criterion E, which excludes the co-occurrence of ADHD in the presence of ASD. Current (within 3 months prior to the evaluation) Manic or Depressive episode, Bipolar Disorder, Schizophrenia, or Posttraumatic Stress Disorder were exclusionary.

Additional Phenotypic Information

We administered standardized questionnaires to further characterize participants with respect to various symptom domains. Specifically, for child participants, parent(s) completed the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ)12 - current form, the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS)13-Child Version, the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF)14, the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL)15, the Repetitive Behaviors Scale - Revised (RBS-R)16, 17, the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC)18, and the Conners' Parent Rating Scales Long Version (CPRS-R-L)19. For adult participants, an informant identified by the participant completed the SRS-Adult - Informant Version and the participants completed the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ)20. Additionally, the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-Second Edition (VABS-II)21, a structured interview used to assess personal and social skills in everyday living, was administered to parents for all children (<18 years of age). For adult participants, the VABS-II was administered to an informant (parent, a relative, or a significant other) when available. All adult VABS-II data shared here were based on parent interview. Body mass index was determined by measuring body weight and height at the initial visit.

References

  1. Gotham K, Pickles A, Lord C. Standardizing ADOS scores for a measure of severity in autism spectrum disorders. J Autism Dev Disord. 2009;39(5):693-705.
  2. Gotham K, Risi S, Pickles A, Lord C. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule: revised algorithms for improved diagnostic validity. J Autism Dev Disord. 2007;37(4):613-627.
  3. Lord C, Rutter M, DiLavore PC, Risi S, Gotham K, Bishop S. Autism diagnostic observation schedule: ADOS-2: Western Psychological Services Los Angeles, CA; 2012.
  4. Lord C, Rutter M, DiLavore PC, Risi S. Autism diagnostic observation schedule-WPS (ADOS-WPS). Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services. 1999.
  5. Le Couteur A, Lord C, Rutter M. The autism diagnostic interview-revised (ADI-R). Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services. 2003.
  6. Kaufman J, Birmaher B, Brent D, Rao U, Flynn C, Moreci P, Williamson D, Ryan N. Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL): initial reliability and validity data. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1997;36(7):980-988.
  7. First M, Spitzer R, Gibbon M, Williams J. Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders - Non-Patient Edition (SCID-I/NP). New York: New York State Psychiatric Institute. 1995.
  8. Wechsler D. Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI). San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation; 1999.
  9. Elliot C. Differential Ability Scales-II (DAS-II). San Antonio, TX: Pearson; 2007.
  10. Wechsler D. Wechsler Individual Achievement Test Second Edition Abbreviated (WIAT-II Abbreviated). San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation 2005.
  11. Oldfield RC. The assessment and analysis of handedness: the Edinburgh inventory. Neuropsychologia. 1971;9(1):97-113.
  12. Rutter M, Bailey A, Lord C. The social communication questionnaire: Manual: Western Psychological Services; 2003.
  13. Constantino JN, Gruber CP. Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS). Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services; 2007.
  14. Gioia GA, Isquith PK, Guy SC, Kenworthy L. Test review behavior rating inventory of executive function. Child Neuropsychology. 2000;6(3):235-238.
  15. Achenbach T, Edelbrock C. Manual for the Child Behavior Checklist and Revised Child Behavior Profile. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry 1983.
  16. Bodfish JW, Symons FJ, Parker DE, Lewis MH. Varieties of repetitive behavior in autism: comparisons to mental retardation. J Autism Dev Disord. 2000;30(3):237-243.
  17. Lam KS, Aman MG. The Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised: independent validation in individuals with autism spectrum disorders. J Autism Dev Disord. 2007;37(5):855-866.
  18. March JS. Manual for the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC). North Tonawanda, NY: Multi-Health Systems; 1998.
  19. Conners CK. Conners' rating scales revised: Multi-Health Systems, Incorporated; 2001.
  20. Baron-Cohen S, Wheelwright S, Skinner R, Martin J, Clubley E. The Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ): Evidence from Asperger Syndrome/High-Functioning Autism, Malesand Females, Scientists and Mathematicians. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 2001;31(1):5-17.
  21. Sparrow SS, Cicchetti DV, Balla DA. Vineland II: Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales Second Edition. Minneapolis, MN: Pearson Assessments 2005.

Scan Procedures and Parameters

Preparation for the MRI Scan

Prior to scans, participants were showed pictures of the MRI scanner and the MRI procedures and experience were described, with the opportunity to ask questions. Additionally, all children completed at least one mock scan session prior to the scan.

MRI Scanning

MRI scans, performed using a 3 Tesla Siemens Allegra, were conducted in a separate visit following the diagnostic assessment (typically within 3 months). Children taking psychostimulants were asked to withhold the medication at least 24 hours prior to the scan, subject to treating physician approval. During the resting state fMRI scan, participants were asked to relax with their eyes open, while a white cross-hair against a black background was projected on a screen. However, in a few cases, participants closed their eyes despite instructions to maintain them open. Eye status during the MRI scan was monitored via an eye tracker and is provided for each participant.

MRI Modalities and Scan Parameters

MRI data shared include: MPRAGE, resting state fMRI and Diffusion Tensor Imaging. Please see link below for specific scan parameters.

MRI Data Quality

All high resolution and EPI images were reviewed for quality control by research staff to exclude only the most extreme cases of movement. Accordingly, datasets with a wide range of image quality are being shared.

Downloads

Investigators and Affiliations

Adriana Di Martino, M.D.1, F. Xavier Castellanos, M.D.1,2,Michael P. Milham, M.D., Ph.D.2,3

  1. The Child Study Center, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, USA
  2. Nathan Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research, Orangeburg, NY, USA
  3. Child Mind Institute, New York, NY, USA

Acknowledgements

We are profoundly grateful to the children, their parents and the adults who participated in our research studies. We further acknowledge the research assistants, postdoctoral fellows, clinical evaluators, interns, and medical students who helped in one or more aspects of the research, including recruitment, data collection, data entry, data-basing, and helpful discussions. They are listed alphabetically as follows:
Yuta Aoki, M.D., Ph.D.; Hallie Brown, B.A.; Bosi Chen, B.A.; Andrea Devoto; Rebecca Doggett Ph.D.; Dorothea Floris, Ph.D.; Monica Gordillo, B.A.; Sarah Kern, M.S.W.; Sarah Kuriakose, Ph.D.; Caila Lavine, B.A.; Tanmay Nath, Ph.D.; Kritika Nayar, B.S.; Shravani Pathal, B.A.; Matthew Roth, Ph.D.; Rebecca Shalev, Ph.D.; Dillon Sharp, B.A.; Krishna Somandepalli M.S.E.C.E.; Emma Stanislawski, B.A.; Katherine Sullivan, Ph.D.

Funding

  • NIH (R21MH102660)

Publications Related to This Dataset

None at the time of data release

Sample Size

Total: N = 27 (age range 5.1-8.8 years)

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD): n = 27 (5.1-8.8 years)

Relation to ABIDE I and Other Data Sharing Initiatives

Relation to ABIDE I

This site participated in ABIDE I. The present data collection represents newly collected data from independent participants. While the phenotypic assessment protocol is highly similar to the one used in the NYU data shared in ABIDE I and the NYU Sample 1 shared in ABIDE II, resting state imaging data were collected with a different MRI sequence (see below).

Relation to NDAR

Some of the data corresponding to children with ASD between ages 5 and 8 years in this data collection have also been uploaded to NDAR. In those cases, NDAR GUIDs are shared.

Diagnostics and Phenotypic Assessments

Inclusion Criteria

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

Inclusion as a participant with ASD required a clinician's DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of Autistic Disorder, Asperger's Disorder, or Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not-Otherwise-Specified or DSM-5 diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder (for those enrolled after DSM-5 release in 2013). Diagnosis was supported by review of available records, an Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule1-4, review of the participant's history, and when possible, an Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised5.

Exclusion Criteria

For all groups, current chronic systemic medical conditions, contraindications to MRI scanning, pregnancy (confirmed by a pregnancy test conducted the day of the scan) or use of antipsychotics were exclusionary.

Assessments and Procedures

Recruitment

Participants were recruited in New York City and surrounding areas through Institutional Review Board (IRB) approved flyers, magazine and web advertisements, parent support groups, referrals from NYU Child Study Center clinical services, contacts from our research database, and by word of mouth. Written informed consent and child assent were obtained from all participants in accordance with NYU School of Medicine IRB oversight.

Estimated IQ

We obtained estimates of intelligence (full, performance and verbal IQ) using the four subtests of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI)6 or the six subtests of the Differential Ability Scales, Second Edition (DAS-II)7.

Academic Achievement

Participants were administered three subtests of the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Second Edition (WIAT-II)8.

Handedness

We used the 22 item Edinburgh Handedness Inventory9. For each item, participants were asked if they use the right, left, or both hands to complete a particular task. The sum of the right-hand responses minus the sum of the left hand responses divided by the total number of unilateral responses multiplied by 100 provided a total handedness score ranging from 100 (strongest right handedness) to -100 (strongest left handedness).

Medication Information

Information about past and current psychoactive treatment was collected both at the initial assessment and again on the day of scanning. Participants being treated with stimulants were asked to withhold them for 24 hours prior to the scan, subject to treating physician approval. Current medication status and whether participants were off stimulants at least 24 hours prior to the MRI scan is provided in the database.

Psychiatric Comorbidity in ASD

To assess psychopathology for differential diagnosis and to determine psychiatric comorbidity with Axis-I disorders, diagnostic assessments also included parent interview using the Schedule of Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for Children-Present and Lifetime Version (KSADS-PL)10. Of note, comorbid ADHD in this sample evaluated under DSM-IV-TR was based on meeting all criteria for ADHD except for DSM-IV-TR criterion E, which excludes the co-occurrence of ADHD in the presence of ASD. Current (within 3 months prior to the evaluation) Manic or Depressive episode, Bipolar Disorder, Schizophrenia, or Posttraumatic Stress Disorder were exclusionary.

Additional Phenotypic Information

We administered standardized questionnaires to further characterize participants with respect to various symptom domains. Specifically, parent(s) completed the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) 11 - current form, the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS)12 - Child Version, the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF)13, the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL)14, the Repetitive Behaviors Scale - Revised (RBS-R)15, 16, and the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC)17, and the Conners' Parent Rating Scales Long Version (CPRS-R-L)18. Additionally, the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-Second Edition (VABS-II)19, a structured interview used to assess personal and social skills in everyday living, was administered to parents for all children. Body mass index was determined by measuring body weight and height at the initial visit.

References

  1. Gotham K, Pickles A, Lord C. Standardizing ADOS scores for a measure of severity in autism spectrum disorders. J Autism Dev Disord. 2009;39(5):693-705.
  2. Gotham K, Risi S, Pickles A, Lord C. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule: revised algorithms for improved diagnostic validity. J Autism Dev Disord. 2007;37(4):613-627.
  3. Lord C, Rutter M, DiLavore PC, Risi S. Autism diagnostic observation schedule-WPS (ADOS-WPS). Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services. 1999.
  4. Lord C, Rutter M, DiLavore PC, Risi S, Gotham K, Bishop S. Autism diagnostic observation schedule: ADOS-2: Western Psychological Services Los Angeles, CA; 2012.
  5. Le Couteur A, Lord C, Rutter M. The autism diagnostic interview-revised (ADI-R). Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services. 2003.
  6. Wechsler D. Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI). San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation; 1999.
  7. Elliot C. Differential Ability Scales-II (DAS-II). San Antonio, TX: Pearson; 2007.
  8. Wechsler D. Wechsler Individual Achievement Test Second Edition Abbreviated (WIAT-II Abbreviated). San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation 2005.
  9. Oldfield RC. The assessment and analysis of handedness: the Edinburgh inventory. Neuropsychologia. 1971;9(1):97-113.
  10. Kaufman J, Birmaher B, Brent D, Rao U, Flynn C, Moreci P, Williamson D, Ryan N. Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL): initial reliability and validity data. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1997;36(7):980-988.
  11. Rutter M, Bailey A, Lord C. The social communication questionnaire: Manual: Western Psychological Services; 2003.
  12. Constantino JN, Gruber CP. Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS). Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services; 2007.
  13. Gioia GA, Isquith PK, Guy SC, Kenworthy L. Test review behavior rating inventory of executive function. Child Neuropsychology. 2000;6(3):235-238.
  14. Achenbach T, Edelbrock C. Manual for the Child Behavior Checklist and Revised Child Behavior Profile. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry 1983.
  15. Bodfish JW, Symons FJ, Parker DE, Lewis MH. Varieties of repetitive behavior in autism: comparisons to mental retardation. J Autism Dev Disord. 2000;30(3):237-243.
  16. Lam KS, Aman MG. The Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised: independent validation in individuals with autism spectrum disorders. J Autism Dev Disord. 2007;37(5):855-866.
  17. March JS. Manual for the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC). North Tonawanda, NY: Multi-Health Systems; 1998.
  18. Conners CK. Conners' rating scales revised: Multi-Health Systems, Incorporated; 2001.
  19. Sparrow SS, Cicchetti DV, Balla DA. Vineland II: Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales Second Edition. Minneapolis, MN: Pearson Assessments 2005.

Scan Procedures and Parameters

Preparation for the MRI Scan

Prior to scans, participants were showed pictures of the MRI scanner and MRI procedures and experience were described with the opportunity to ask questions. Additionally, all children completed at least one mock scan session prior to being scanned.

MRI Scanning

MRI scans, acquired using a 3 Tesla Siemens Allegra, were conducted in a separate visit following the diagnostic assessment (typically within 3 months). Children taking psychostimulants were asked to withhold the medication at least 24 hours prior to the scan, subject to treating physician approval. During the resting state fMRI scan, participants were asked to relax with their eyes open, while a white cross-hair against a black background was projected on a screen. However, in a few cases, participants closed their eyes despite instructions to maintain them open. Eye status during the MRI scan was monitored via an eye tracker and is provided for each participant.

MRI Modalities and Scan Parameters

MRI data shared include: MPRAGE, Resting state fMRI and Diffusion Tensor Imaging. Please see attachment below for specific scan parameters.

MRI Data Quality

All high resolution and EPI images were reviewed for quality control by research staff to exclude only the most extreme cases of movement. Accordingly, datasets with a wide range of image quality are being shared.

Downloads

Investigators and Affiliations

Michal Assaf, M.D.1

  1. Olin Neuropsychiatry Research Center, Institute of Living, Hartford Hospital & Yale School of Medicine, Dep. of Psychiatry

Acknowledgements

The PI would like to thank Greg Book for his help with data preparation and submission to ABIDE as well as Sophy Brocke and Kevin Cook for their tireless efforts in recruiting participants and collecting the data. We thank all participants and their family members for taking part in our research study!

Funding

  • NIMH: R01 MH095888

Publications Related to This Dataset

    None at the time of data release.

Sample Size

Total: N = 59 (age range 18-31 years)

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD): n = 24 (18-31 years)
Typical Controls (TC): n = 35 (18-31 years)

Relation to ABIDE I and Other Data Sharing Initiatives

Relation to ABIDE I

This site participated in ABIDE I. The present data collection represents newly collected data from independent participants. Olin ABIDE I (abbreviated as Olin) and ABIDE II (abbreviated as ONRC_2) datasets have been collected on different scanners with different scan parameters; as such the two collections should be considered independent.

Relation to NDAR

Some of the data have also been uploaded to NDAR. In those cases NDAR GUIDs are shared.

Diagnostics and Phenotypic Assessments

Inclusion Criteria

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

To be included as participants with ASD, individuals met cutoff score for ASD at the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule - Generic (ADOS-G)1, and when possible (parent/caregiver available for interview) autism cutoff at the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R)2 or at the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ)3- lifetime form.

Typical Controls

Enrollment as TDC required ruling out any psychiatric disorder based on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders-Research Version (SCID-I RV)4 and research reliable administration/scoring of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Scale (ADOS-G)1. When one or both of their parents were available (in person or via phone), they were also asked to complete the SCQ3 -Lifetime form.

Assessments and Procedures

Recruitment

Individuals with ASD were recruited from IOL and Yale outpatient units, community clinics, ASD patient and family support groups, ASD local events (e.g., Autism Services and Resources Connecticut (ASRC) conferences, Autism Speaks walks) and social media advertisement. TC were recruited from ONRC's TC registry and advertisement in local colleges and social media. Informed consent was obtained from all participants in accordance with Olin Neuropsychiatry Research Center, Institute of Living at Hartford Hospital Institutional Review Board oversight.

Estimated IQ

To estimate full scale IQ, all participants were administered the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - Third Edition (WAIS-III)5: Vocabulary and Block Design subscales

Handedness

Handedness is assessed with the Edinburgh inventory, version 16.

Medication Information

Current history of psychoactive medication use (within three months prior to scan) was assessed thorough interview (SCID-I RV).

Psychiatric Comorbidity in ASD

To assess psychopathology for differential diagnosis and to determine psychiatric comorbidity with Axis-I disorders, diagnostic assessments also included parent interview using the Schedule of Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for Children-Present and Lifetime Version (KSADS-PL)6. Of note, comorbid ADHD in this sample evaluated under DSM-IV-TR was based on meeting all criteria for ADHD except for DSM-IV-TR criterion E, which excludes the co-occurrence of ADHD in the presence of ASD. Current (within 3 months prior to the evaluation) Manic or Depressive episode, Bipolar Disorder, Schizophrenia, or Posttraumatic Stress Disorder were exclusionary.

Additional Phenotypic Information

The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II)7 was also collected.

References

  1. Lord C, Rutter M, DiLavore PC, Risi S. Autism diagnostic observation schedule-WPS (ADOS--PS). Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services. 1999.
  2. Le Couteur A, Lord C, Rutter M. The autism diagnostic interview-revised (ADI-R). Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services. 2003.
  3. Rutter M, Bailey A, Lord C. The social communication questionnaire: Manual: Western Psychological Services; 2003.
  4. First M, Spitzer R, Gibbon M, Williams J. Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders - Non-Patient Edition (SCID-I/NP). New York: New York State Psychiatric Institute. 1995.
  5. Wechsler D. WAIS-III: Administration and scoring manual: Wechsler adult intelligence scale: Psychological Corporation; 1997.
  6. Oldfield RC. The assessment and analysis of handedness: the Edinburgh inventory. Neuropsychologia. 1971;9(1):97-113.
  7. Beck AT, Steer RA, Brown GK. Beck depression inventory-II. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation. 1996:b9.

Scan Procedures and Parameters

Preparation for the MRI Scan

Participants wore scrubs; no one needed to be trained on the mock scanner. Before starting the scan participants were verbally introduced to the scanning procedures.

MRI Scanning

Participants were instructed to lie still with their eyes open fixating on a central cross presented on a mirror mounted on the head coil. Whenever possible, in order to increase the signal to noise ratio (SNR) for the anatomical images, at least three (but preferably five) anatomical scans were collected. In addition, at least one resting state scan was attempted. During scanning images were passed through an automated QC program which calculated movement and signal to noise ratio (SNR) in realtime for the scan operator to examine before the subject left the scanner. Poor quality scans were repeated. Thus, in some cases more than five anatomical scans and more than one resting state fMRI scan have been collected to address excessive motion.
Note: During resting state fMRI data collection, phase acquisition direction varied for three individuals (3 IDs, 5 files), see below. Additionally, as reflected in MRI data structure, a subset of individuals completed a second scan session (session 2) within 8 days from the first to maximize quality of data collection. The MRI dataset structure indicates when session2 is available.

MRI Modalities and Scan Parameters

MRI data shared include: MPRAGE and resting state fMRI. Note: As mentioned above, for three individuals, during resting state fMRI data collection phase acquisition direction varied (3 IDs, 5 files). Thus, an additional file providing the specific of the phase direction per each ID is included with the MRI datasets for this site. Please also see links below for specific scan parameters.

MRI Data Quality

To maximize potential utility for a boarder range of applications by users, all imaging data collected were shared regardless of motion and quality.

Downloads

Investigators and Affiliations

Damien Fair, PA-C.,Ph.D.1,2,3,Joel Nigg, Ph.D. OHSU1,2, Eric Fombonne M.D.2

  1. Behavioral Neuroscience Department, Oregon Health & Science University.
  2. Psychiatry Department, Oregon Health & Science University.
  3. Advanced Imaging Research Center, Oregon Health & Science University.

Acknowledgements

We are extremely grateful to the children and their families who participated in our research studies. We further acknowledge the multiple staff and various expertise in the form of additional faculty, research assistants, postdoctoral fellows, clinical evaluators, and other faculty who helped in one or more aspects of the research including recruitment, data collection, data entry, data-basing, and helpful discussions. They are listed as follows:
Alison Hill Ph.D., Bene Ramirez, Beth Langhorst Ph.D., Christina Finn, Damion Demeter, Daniel Kriz Psy.D., David Grayson, Elizabeth Hawkey, Eric Earl, Eric Fombonne M.D., Jan Van Santen, Ph.D., Jessica Tipsord Ph.D., Julia Grieser-Painter Ph.D., Kiryl Shada M.A., Libby Nousen, Marc Rudolph, Marguerite Matthews Ph.D., Michaela Cordova, Moosa Ahmed, Sam Carpenter, Sarah Karalunas Ph.D., Susanne Duvall Ph.D.

Funding

  • NIH (R01 MH096773, R00MH091238, R01 MH096773-03S1, R01 MH086654)
  • DeStefano Family Foundation
  • Simons Foundation
  • Oregon Clinical and Translational Institute
  • Medical Research Foundation

Publications Related to This Dataset

    The following publications included some of the data shared in this data collection.:
  • Costa Dias, T.G., Iyer, S., Carpenter, S.D., Cary, R.P., Wilson, V.B., Mitchel, S.H., Nigg, J.T., Fair, D.A. (2015). Characterizing the heterogeneity in children with and without ADHD based on reward system connectivity. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience. Karalunas, S., Fair, D.A., Musser, E.D., Aykes, K., Iyer, S., Nigg, J. (2014) Toward Biologically-Based Nosology: ADHD subtyping using temperment dimensions. JAMA Psychiatry. 71(9):1015-24.
  • Ray S., Miller, M., Karalunas, S. Robertson, C.J., Grayson, D., Cary, R.P., Hawkey, E., Painter, J.G., Kriz, D., Fombonne, E., Nigg, J.T., Fair, D.A. (2014). Structural and Functional Connectivity of the Human Brain in Autism Spectrum Disorders and Attention-Deficit/Hypteractivity Disorder: A Rich-Club Organization study. Hum Brain Map. 35(12):6032-48.
  • Gates KM, Molenaar PC, Iyer SP, Nigg JT, Fair DA. (2014). Organizing heterogeneous samples using community detection of GIMME-derived resting state functional networks. PLoS One 9(3):e91322.
  • Grayson, D.S., Ray, S., Carpenter, S., Iyer, S., Costa Dias, Taciana, Stevens, C., Nigg, J.T., Fair, D.A. (2014). Structural and Functional Rich-Club Organization of the Brain in Children and Adults. PLoS One.
  • Costa Dias T.G., Wilson V.B., Bathula D.R., Iyer S.P., Mills K.L., Thurlow B.L., Stevens C.A., Musser E.D., Carpenter, S.D., Grayson, D.S., Mitchell, S.H., Nigg, J.T., Fair, D.A. (2012). Reward circuit connectivity relates to delay discounting in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 23(1):33-45.

Sample Size

Total: N = 93 (age range 7-15 years)

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD): n = 37 (7-15 years)

Typical Controls (TC): n = 56 (8-14 years)

Relation to ABIDE I and Other Data Sharing Initiatives

Relation to ABIDE I

This site participated in ABIDE I; the present data represent newly collected data from independent participants.

Relation to NDAR

Some of the data corresponding to children with ASD and controls in this data collection have also been uploaded to NDAR. In those cases, NDAR GUIDs are shared.

Diagnostics and Phenotypic Assessments

Inclusion Criteria

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

Children with DSM-IV-TR diagnoses of an ASD were recruited through the University's Autism Clinic and community support groups as well as through aforementioned community methods. Participants in the ASD group were administered the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic or the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule - Second Edition (ADOS-G, ADOS-2)1, 2 and parents completed the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R)3 with interviewers who established research reliability to an approved trainer. Parents also completed the Social Responsiveness Scale-Second Edition (SRS-2)4, Children's Communication Checklist-Second Edition (CCC-2)5, and a detailed developmental history questionnaire. As with the typically developing sample, a best estimate diagnosis was established by a multi-disciplinary diagnostic team that included three licensed, experienced clinicians. These clinicians reviewed all available clinical information but were blind to the neuropsychological testing results.

Typical Controls (TC)

Control children in the current study were part of a larger, ongoing longitudinal study. All children were recruited from the community via mailings to commercial mailing lists and public advertisements. To establish eligibility, families participated in a multi-gated procedure that included an initial phone interview to rule out neurological conditions, seizure disorder, intellectual disability, pervasive developmental disorders, and ineligible non-stimulant medications. Parents of children who remained eligible upon completion of the initial phone screen were invited to complete the ADHD Rating Scale6, Conner's Rating Scale - 3rd Edition (Conners 3)7, and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire8. A parent also completed an in-person structured diagnostic interview (Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia, KSADS)9, while the child completed IQ and brief academic achievement testing to screen for possible learning disability. A best estimate diagnosis was established by a multi-disciplinary diagnostic team that included two licensed, experienced clinicians. Typically-developing controls could not, by definition, meet criteria for ADHD or ASD according to DSM-IV and DSM-5 criteria. The diagnostic team clinicians reviewed all available clinical information but were blind to the neuropsychological testing results. This team was also responsible for diagnosing co-morbidities for all participants using this same data (including ASD participants).

Exclusion Criteria

Children in the ASD and control groups were excluded if they: were prescribed long-acting psychotropic medications; had neurological impairment, seizure history, head injury with loss of consciousness, other major medical conditions, or substance abuse; had prior diagnosis of mental retardation, autism spectrum disorder (i.e. for controls), or psychosis; were currently experiencing a major depressive episode; or had estimated IQ <70. Children with ASD taking stimulant medications were included in the study but were required to be off medication for 24 (for short-acting preparations) to 48 hours (for long-acting preparations) prior to testing. Typically developing children who developed a rule out diagnosis (e.g. Tourette Syndrome) were allowed to continue in the study. Thus, it is important when examining this dataset to pay close attention to co-morbid disorders in all participants.

Assessments and Procedures

Recruitment

As described above, children ASD were recruited through the University's Autism Clinic and community support groups as well as through aforementioned community methods. All children were recruited from the community via mailings to commercial mailing lists and public advertisements.

Estimated IQ

We obtained an estimate of intelligence using three subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Fourth Edition (WISC-IV)10: block design, vocabulary, and information.

Handedness

We used the 22 item Edinburgh Handedness Inventory11. For each item, participants were asked if they use the right, the left, or both hands to complete a particular task. The sum of the right-hand responses minus the sum of the left hand responses divided by the total number of unilateral responses multiplied by 100 provided a total handedness score ranging from 100 (strongest right handedness) to -100 (strongest left handedness).

Medication Information

Information about past and current psychoactive treatment was collected both at the initial assessment and again at the day of scan. Current med use was defined as within three months from the scan date. Participants being treated with stimulants were asked to withhold them for 24 to 48 hours prior to the scan, subject to treating physician approval. Current medication status and whether participants were off stimulants at least 24 hours prior to the MRI scan is marked in the database.

Psychiatric Comorbidity in ASD

Information on comorbid psychiatric disorders in ASD were based on clinician's judgment following careful review of all available records including the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (KSADS) as described above.

Additional Phenotypic Information

We administered standardized questionnaires to further characterize participants with respect to various symptom domains. Specifically, for child participants, parent(s) completed the Social Communication Questionnaire-Current Version (SCQ)12, the Social Responsiveness Scale, Second Edition (SRS-2)4 -Child version, the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF)13 Children completed the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC)14 Additionally, participants were administered three subtests of the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Second Edition, Abbreviated (WIAT-II)15: word reading, pseudoword, and math.

Reference

  1. Lord C, Risi S, Lambrecht L, Cook Jr EH, Leventhal BL, DiLavore PC, Pickles A, Rutter M. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic: A standard measure of social and communication deficits associated with the spectrum of autism. Journal of autism and developmental disorders. 2000;30(3):205-223.
  2. Lord C, Rutter M, DiLavore PC, Risi S, Gotham K, Bishop S. Autism diagnostic observation schedule: ADOS-2: Western Psychological Services Los Angeles, CA; 2012.
  3. Lord C, Rutter M, Le Couteur A. Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised: a revised version of a diagnostic interview for caregivers of individuals with possible pervasive developmental disorders. J Autism Dev Disord. 1994;24(5):659-685.
  4. Constantino J, N., & Gruber, C. P. Social Responsiveness Scale, Second Edition (SRS-2). Torrance, CA: Western Psychological Services; 2012.
  5. Bishop D. The Children's Communication Checklist: CCC-2: ASHA; 2003.
  6. Pappas D. ADHD Rating Scale-IV: Checklists, norms and clinical interpretation. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment. 2006;24(2):172-178.
  7. Conners CK. Conners 3rd edition: Multi-Health Systems Toronto,, Ontario, Canada; 2008.
  8. Goodman R. Psychometric Properties of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 2001;40(11):1337-1345.
  9. Kaufman J, Birmaher B, Brent D, Rao U, Ryan N. Kiddie-Sads-present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL). Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh, School of Medicine. 1996.
  10. Wechsler D. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-WISC-IV: Psychological Corporation; 2003.
  11. Oldfield RC. The assessment and analysis of handedness: the Edinburgh inventory. Neuropsychologia. 1971;9(1):97-113.
  12. Rutter M, Bailey A, Lord C. The social communication questionnaire: Manual: Western Psychological Services; 2003.
  13. LeJeune B, Beebe D, Noll J, Kenealy L, Isquith P, Gioia G. Psychometric support for an abbreviated version of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) Parent Form. Child Neuropsychology. 2010;16(2):182-201.
  14. March JS. Manual for the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC). North Tonawanda, NY: Multi-Health Systems; 1998.
  15. Wechsler D. Wechsler Individual Achievement Test Second Edition Abbreviated (WIAT-II Abbreviated). San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation 2005.

Scan Procedures and Parameters

Preparation for the MRI Scan

Prior to scans, participants were shown pictures of the MRI scan and were described the MRI procedures and experience, as well as given the chance to ask questions. Additionally, all children completed at least one mock scan session prior to the scan. Mock MRI's and scan prep were completed within an average of 1 month from the MRI date.

MRI Scanning

MRI scans, acquired using a Siemens 3 Tesla TIM Trio with a 12-channel coil, were conducted in a separate visit following the diagnostic assessment (typically within 3 months). Children taking psychostimulants were asked to withhold the medication at least 24 to 48 hours prior to the scan, subject to treating physician approval. During the resting state fMRI scan, participants were asked to relax with their eyes open, while a white cross-hair against a black background was projected on a screen. The order of image acquisition is as follows: T1, resting state 1, resting state 2, resting state 3, Deformation Field Map, T2, DTI-HARDI, and DTI-3 averages or DTI-2 averages, depending on available time.

MRI Modalities and Scan Parameters

MRI data shared include: MPRAGE and resting state-fMRI. Detailed scan parameters are attached below.

MRI Data Quality

All high resolution and EPI images were internally reviewed for quality control by research staff members. As datasets with a wide range of image quality are being shared, only the most extreme cases of movement were excluded from this sample.

Downloads

Investigators and Affiliations

Louise Gallagher M.B., MRCPsych, Ph.D.1,2, Jane McGrath M.B., MRCPsych, Ph.D.1,2,Jacqueline Fitzgerald1, Ph.D.1,2

  1. Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Trinity Centre for Health Sciences, St. James's Hospital, Dublin, Ireland.
  2. Trinity Institute of Neuroscience, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

Acknowledgements

Thank you to Dr. Sojo Joseph, Radiographer, Trinity College Institute of Neuroscience for his help with data collection and to all the participants and their families for giving their time to this research.

Funding

    National Children's Research Centre (NCRC) Our Lady's Children's Hospital, Crumlin, Dublin 12, Ireland.

Publications Related to This Dataset

The following publications included some of the data shared in this data collection:
  • Fitzgerald J., Johnson K., Kehoe E., Bokde A.L., Garavan H., Gallagher L., McGrath J. Disrupted Functional Connectivity in Dorsal and Ventral Attention Networks During Attention Orienting in Autism Spectrum Disorders. Autism Research, 2015, Apr;8(2): 136-52.

Sample Size

Total: N = 42 (age range 10-20 years)

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD): n = 21 (10-20 years)
Typical Controls (TC): n = 21 (15-20 years)

Relation to ABIDE I and Other Data Sharing Initiatives

Relation to ABIDE I

This site participated in ABIDE I; the present data represent newly collected data from independent participants. These data can be merged with the TCD ABIDE I collection, if needed, because of overlaps in phenotypic characterization and scan parameters.

Relation to NDAR

None of these data have been previously uploaded to NDAR.

Diagnostics and Phenotypic Assessments

Inclusion Criteria

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

  • Right-handed males aged 10-20 years of age
  • Meeting cutoff criteria at the Autism Diagnostic Interview (ADI)1.
  • Meeting cutoff criteria at the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (ADOS-G)2 for autism and ASD.
  • Meeting cutoff scores for both ADI-R and ADOS-G.

Typical Controls (TC)

  • Right-handed males age matched to ASD.
  • Age and IQ males group-matched to the ASD sample.
  • Reported absence of history of developmental delay or any psychiatric, neurological or genetic disorder including dyslexia and dyspraxia.
  • A raw score below 50 of the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS)3 or below 12 on the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ)4 -lifetime version.
  • Absence of a first-degree relative who has been diagnosed with ASD.

Exclusion Criteria

    For all participants:
  • Full scale IQ < 70.
  • A history of a loss of consciousness for more than five minutes or a history of serious head injuries.
  • Current use of psychoactive medications.
  • MRI contraindications.
  • Females.
  • Reported history of genetic disorders associated with autism (i.e. Fragile X).
  • Reported neurological or psychological disorders comorbid with ASD.

Assessments and Procedures

Recruitment

Right-handed males with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were recruited from an existing autism genetics sample in Trinity College Dublin as well as through advocacy groups and child and adolescent mental health services. Both ASD and TC participants were recruited through schools, universities, social media sites, volunteer websites, local businesses and educational programs. Ethical approval was obtained from the Irish Health Services Executive Linn Dara Child and Adolescent Research Ethics Committee, St. James's Hospital / The Adelaide and Meath National Children's Hospital. Written consent was obtained from all participants aged over 18 years. Both parental written consent as well as written assent from participants was obtained from all participants under 18 years.

Estimated IQ

IQ was measured using the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI)5 which consists of four subsets: vocabulary, similarities, block design and matrix reasoning.

Handedness

All participants were right-handed based on both self-report and parent report.

Medication Information

All information regarding current psychoactive medication use (defined as use wtihin three months from the scan) was obtained from self-report and parent report. The information collected were consistent across informants.

Psychiatric Comorbidity in ASD

Participants with a reported psychiatric, neurological or genetic comorbidity were excluded from both experimental groups.

Additional Phenotypic Information

All participants' parents were asked to complete the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS)3, Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ)4 lifetime version, and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL)6. Parents of children with autism were also asked to complete the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R)7, 8.

References

  1. Lord C, Rutter M, Le Couteur A. Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised: a revised version of a diagnostic interview for caregivers of individuals with possible pervasive developmental disorders. J Autism Dev Disord. 1994;24(5):659-685.
  2. Lord C, Risi S, Lambrecht L, Cook Jr EH, Leventhal BL, DiLavore PC, Pickles A, Rutter M. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic: A standard measure of social and communication deficits associated with the spectrum of autism. Journal of autism and developmental disorders. 2000;30(3):205-223.
  3. Constantino JN, Gruber CP. Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS). Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services; 2007.
  4. Rutter M, Bailey A, Lord C. The social communication questionnaire: Manual: Western Psychological Services; 2003.
  5. Wechsler D. Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI). San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation; 1999.
  6. Achenbach T, Edelbrock C. Manual for the Child Behavior Checklist and Revised Child Behavior Profile. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry 1983.
  7. Lam KS, Aman MG. The Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised: independent validation in individuals with autism spectrum disorders. J Autism Dev Disord. 2007;37(5):855-866.
  8. Bodfish JW, Symons FJ, Parker DE, Lewis MH. Varieties of repetitive behavior in autism: comparisons to mental retardation. J Autism Dev Disord. 2000;30(3):237-243.

Scan Procedures and Parameters

Preparation for the MRI Scan

Prior and at the time of the scan, participants were given the opportunity to become accustomed to the scanner environment in a ''mock scanner.'' Not all participants completed these sessions. Participants were also provided with an audio recording of the scanner noise. A full description of the scanning procedure was given to the participant in written format (information sheet) and verbally during initial contact and again during the consent and scanning processes. All participants were provided with earplugs, headphones and an emergency button. It was explained to all participants that it was possible to communicate with the radiographer and researcher through the intercom system between scans. Furthermore, participants were informed that they could stop the scan at any time by pressing the emergency button.

MRI Scanning

All scanning was conducted on a Philips Intera Achieva 3.0 Tesla MR system (Best, The Netherlands) equipped with a mirror, which was projected onto a panel placed behind the participants' head outside the magnet. The mirror was mounted on the head coil in the participants' line of vision. The mirror reflected a visual display (projection of a computer screen), which presented the red-cross. Participants were asked to look at the red-cross for the duration of the scan.

MRI Modalities and Scan Parameters

MRI data shared include: MPRAGE, resting state fMRI and DTI. Please see attachment below for specific scan parameters.

MRI Data Quality

To maximize potential utility for a boarder range of applications by users, all imaging data were shared regardless of movement or quality.

Downloads

Investigators and Affiliations

Ralph-Axel Müller, Ph.D.1, Inna Fishman, Ph.D.1,R. Joanne Jao Keehn, Ph.D.1

  1. San Diego State University, San Diego, CA, USA

Acknowledgements

We gratefully acknowledge all of the children and their families for participating in this research. Additionally, we acknowledge the team of research assistants, graduate students, clinicians, and research faculty who aided in recruitment, assessment, data acquisition, and data entry. These individuals are listed alphabetically:
Angela E. Abbott, M.A., Michael M. Berkebile, B.A., Ruth A. Carper, Ph.D., Christina Corsello, Ph.D., Christopher H. Fong, B.S., Yangfeifei Gao, B.S., Anna Legenkaya, M.A., Alan J. Lincoln, Ph.D., Aarti Nair, Ph.D., Sangeeta Nair, M.S., Seraphina Solders, Morgan K. Sullivan, B.S., Natalia Witkowska, Weiqi Zhao, B.S.

Funding

  • NIH R01 MH-081023 (PI: Müller)
  • NIH K01 MH-097972 (PI: Fishman)

Publications Related to This Dataset

The following publications included some of the data shared in this data collection:
  • Nair, A., Keown, C.L., Datko, M.C., Shih, P., Keehn, B.M., & Müller, R.-A. (2014) Impact of methodological variables on functional connectivity findings in Autism Spectrum Disorders. Human Brain Mapping 35, 4035-48.
  • Fishman, I., Keown, C.L., Lincoln, A.J., Pineda, J.A., & Müller, R.-A. (2014) Atypical 'cross-talk' between mentalizing and mirror neuron networks in autism spectrum disorder. JAMA Psychiatry 71, 751-60.
  • Chen, C.P., Keown, C.L., Jahedi, A., Nair, A., Pflieger, M.E., Bailey, B.A., & Müller, R.-A. (2015). Diagnostic classification of intrinsic functional connectivity highlights somatosensory, default mode, and visual regions in autism. Neuroimage: Clinical 8, 238-45.
  • Khan, A.J., Nair, A., Keown, C.L., Datko, M.C., Lincoln, A.J., & Müller, R.A. (2015) Cerebro-cerebellar Resting-State Functional Connectivity in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 78(9), 625-34.
  • Carper, R.A., Solders, S., Treiber, J.M., Fishman, I., & Müller, R.-A. (2015) Corticospinal tract anatomy and functional connectivity of primary motor cortex in autism spectrum disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 54, 859-67.
  • Nair, A., Carper, R.A., Abbott, A.E., Chen, C.P., Solders, S., Nakutin, S., Datko, M.C., Fishman, I., & Müller, R.-A. (2015) Regional specificity of aberrant thalamocortical connectivity in autism. Human Brain Mapping 36, 4497-4511.
  • Abbott, A.E., Nair, A., Keown, C.L., Datko, M.C., Jahedi, A., Fishman, I., & Müller, R.-A. (2015) Patterns of atypical functional connectivity and behavioral links in autism differ between default, salience, and executive networks. Cerebral Cortex. E-pub.
  • Fishman, I., Datko, M., Cabrera, Y., Carper, R.A. & Müller, R.-A. (2015) Reduced integration and differentiation of the imitation network in autism: A multimodal fcMRI and DWI study. Annals of Neurology, 78(6), 958-969.

Sample Size

Total: N = 58 (age range 7.4-18 years)

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD): n = 33 (7.4-18 years)
Typical Controls (TC): n = 25 (8.1-17.7 years)

Relation to ABIDE I and Other Data Sharing Initiatives

Relation to ABIDE I

This site participated in ABIDE I; the present data represent newly collected data from independent participants. These data can be merged with the SUSD ABIDE I collection, if needed, because of the overlaps in phenotypic characterization and scan parameters.

Relation to NDAR

None of these data have been previously uploaded to NDAR.

Diagnostics and Phenotypic Assessments

Inclusion Criteria

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

Clinical diagnoses were confirmed using all of the following: the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised1, the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule2 (2nd edition), and expert clinical judgment according to DSM-5 criteria. Clinical assessments were confirmed by expert clinical neuropsychologists (Alan J. Lincoln, Ph.D., Alliant International University; Christina Corsello, Ph.D., Clinical Director of the Autism Discovery Institute at Rady Children's Hospital).

Typical Controls (TC)

Absence of personal or family history of ASD by parent-report as well as no reported history of any other neurological or psychiatric conditions were required for inclusion as TC. A phone screening was conducted to identify TC participants that met these criteria, followed by an in-person screening with a child and family history questionnaire.

Exclusion Criteria

Children with ASD-related medical conditions (e.g., Fragile-X syndrome, tuberous sclerosis) and other neurological conditions (e.g., epilepsy, Tourette's Syndrome) were excluded. Other medical conditions (e.g., diabetes) were not exclusionary. Any participants with permanent metal in their bodies (e.g., braces, ear gauges) and with any other contraindications to MRI scans from both ASD and TC groups were excluded.

Assessments and Procedures

Recruitment

Both groups were recruited through a variety of methods including the dissemination of IRB-approved advertisements, flyers throughout the greater San Diego area (via community/youth organizations, schools, ASD services providers, etc.), word of mouth, and from existing participant pools from previous projects. Informed assent and consent were obtained from all participants and their caregivers in accordance with the University of California, San Diego and San Diego State University Institutional Review Boards.

Estimated IQ

IQ scores (full, performance, and verbal IQ) were obtained for both groups of participants using the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence3.

Handedness

Hand preference was assessed with the 10-item Edinburgh Handedness Inventory.4

Medication Information

Not reported in phenotypic data set.

Psychiatric Comorbidity in ASD

Not reported in phenotypic data set.

Additional Phenotypic Information

Other measures acquired include the Repetitive Behaviors Scale-Revised (RBS-R)5, the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals6 (4th edition), Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (VMI)7, the Social Communication Questionnaire-lifetime version (SCQ)8, the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS)9, and the parent report version of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF)10.

References

  1. Rutter, M., Le Couteur, A., & Lord, C., 2003. Autism Diagnostic Interview - Revised. Western Psychological Services: Los Angeles, CA.
  2. Lord, C., Rutter, M., DiLavore, P.C., Risi, S., Gotham, K., & Bishop, S., 2012. Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Second Edition ( ADOS-2) Manual (Part I): Modules 1-4. Western Psychological Services: Torrance, CA.
  3. Wechsler, D., 1999. Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence. The Psychological Corporation: San Antonio, TX.
  4. Oldfield, R.C., 1971. The assessment and analysis of handedness: The Edinburgh Inventory. Neuropsychologia, 9, 97-113.
  5. Lam, K.S.L., & Aman, M.G., 2007. The Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised: Independent validation in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37(5), 855-866.
  6. Semel, E., Wiig, E.H., & Secord, W.A., 2003. Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals, fourth edition (CELF-4). The Psychological Corporation/A Harcourt Assessment Company: Toronto, Canada.
  7. Beery, K.E., & Beery, N.A., 2010. Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration - Sixth Edition. NCS Pearson, Inc.: Bloomington, MN.
  8. Rutter, M., Bailey, A., & Lord, C., 2003. Social Communication Questionnaire. Western Psychological Services: Los Angeles, CA.
  9. Constantino, J.N., & Gruber, C.P., 2005. Social Responsiveness Scale. Western Psychological Services: Los Angeles, CA.
  10. Gioia, G.A., Isquith, P.K., Guy, S.C., & Kenworthy, L., 2000. Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function. Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.: Odessa, FL.

Scan Procedures and Parameters

Preparation for the MRI Scan

All children completed at least one mock scan session within two weeks of the scan. Children with ASD who exhibited moderate amounts of motion also completed a mock scan immediately preceding the scan.

MRI Scanning

Imaging data were acquired on a GE 3T MR750 scanner with an 8-channel head coil at the UCSD Center for Functional MRI. Head movement was minimized with foam pillows around participants' heads. All scans were acquired in the following sequence: resting state fMRI, anatomical MRI, DTI. During the resting state scans, participants were instructed to keep their eyes directed on a cross-hair in the center of the projector, relax, and try not to fall asleep for the duration of the scan. Functional T2*-weighted images were obtained using a single-shot gradient-recalled, echo-planar pulse sequence and high-resolution structural images were acquired with a standard FSPGR T1-weighted sequence.

MRI Modalities and Scan Parameters

MRI data shared include: anatomical, resting state MRI and Diffusion Tensor Imaging. Please see attachment below for specific scan parameters.

MRI Data Quality

To maximize potential utility for a broader range of applications by users, datasets shared here include a wide range of detected head movement. Only extreme cases of movement (e.g., >20% of time points with motion exceeding 1mm, ringing artifacts, etc., n = 8), incidental findings (n = 2), and slice dropout (n = 1) were excluded from this sample.

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Investigators and Affiliations

Vinod Menon, Ph.D.1, Daniel Abrams, Ph.D.1, Kaustubh Supekar, Ph.D.1, Aarthi Padmanabhan, Ph.D.1

  1. Stanford University

Acknowledgements

We would like to acknowledge Amanda Baker and Jonathan Nicholas for assistance with data organization.

Funding

  • National Institutes of Health [DC011095, MH084164] to V.M.
  • National Institutes of Health [K01MH102428] to D.A.A.
  • The Singer Foundation
  • The Simons Foundation (VM)
  • The Autism Science Foundation (AP)

Publications Related to This Dataset

    Abrams, D. A., Lynch, C. J., Cheng, K., Phillips, J., Supekar, K., Ryali, S., Uddin, L. Q., & Menon, V. (2013). Under-connectivity between voice-selective cortex and reward circuitry in children with autism. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 110(29), 12060-12065.

Sample Size

Total: N = 42 (age range 8-13 years)

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD): n = 21 (8-13 years)

Typical Controls (TC): n = 16 (8 - 13 years)

Relation to ABIDE I and Other Data Sharing Initiatives

Relation to ABIDE I

This site participated in ABIDE I. The data included in this collection represents newly collected data from independent participants. While inclusion criteria and phenotypic assessment protocol are highly similar to the original Stanford collection of ABIDE I, the imaging data were collected with different MRI sequences (see below).

Relation to NDAR

Some of the data have been uploaded to NDAR and NDAR GUIDs are shared.

Diagnostics and Phenotypic Assessments

Inclusion Criteria

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

Children with ASD received a diagnosis based on scores from the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R)1 and/or the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS)2-4 administered by a research reliable clinician. Children with ASD were screened through a parent phone interview and excluded if they had any history of known genetic, psychiatric, or neurological disorders (e.g., Fragile X syndrome or Tourette's syndrome), or were currently prescribed antipsychotic medications. .

Typical Controls (TC)

Typically developing children were screened and excluded if they or a first-degree relative had developmental, language, learning, neurological, or psychiatric disorders, or if they were currently taking any brain-affecting medications.

Exclusion Criteria common to all Participants

Any child with Full Scale IQ < 70, as measured by the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI)5, was excluded from the study. .

Assessment Procedures

Recruitment

Participants were recruited in the San Francisco Bay Area through advertisements. All participants/parents signed written consent/assent approved by the Stanford University Institutional Review Board.

Estimated IQ

We obtained estimates of intelligence (total, performance and verbal IQ) using the four subtests of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI)7 and are shared here (see links to dataset and databases).

Additional Questionnaires/Interviews

All participants underwent a battery of additional standardized neuropsychological assessments which are not included in this release.

Handedness

We determined handedness using a 10-item version of the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory. Scoring was based on a scale from -100 (full left-handed) to +100 (full right-handed). This was obtained by assigning a value of 1 to either left (L) or right (R) for an answer of “never use other hand,” .5 for “sometimes use other hand,” and .5 to both L and R for an answer of “use both hands.” Total Score = (R Tot – L Tot) * 100.

Medication Information

Information regarding current psychoactive medication was collected at the initial phone screening, which occurred at varying lengths of time from the scan date (but usually within 6 months of the scan). We did not ask participants to withhold any medication use prior to scan. Medication status at the time (day) of scanning was not recorded.

Psychiatric Comorbidity in ASD

Psychiatric comorbidity information was obtained from parents during initial subject registration and screening. This was not confirmed by formal assessment.

Additional Phenotypic Information

No additional phenotypic information is available.

References

  1. Le Couteur A, Lord C, Rutter M. The autism diagnostic interview-revised (ADI-R). Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services. 2003.
  2. Lord C, Rutter M, DiLavore PC, Risi S. Autism diagnostic observation schedule-WPS (ADOS-WPS). Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services. 1999.
  3. Gotham K, Pickles A, Lord C. Standardizing ADOS scores for a measure of severity in autism spectrum disorders. J Autism Dev Disord. 2009;39(5):693-705.
  4. Gotham K, Risi S, Pickles A, Lord C. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule: revised algorithms for improved diagnostic validity. J Autism Dev Disord. 2007;37(4):613-627.
  5. Wechsler D. Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI). San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation; 1999.

Scan Procedures and Parameters

Preparation for the MRI Scan

We made available to all participants a video entitled “Preparing for your MRI scan” as well as a sound file entitled “Scanner Sounds” in order to prepare them for the scanning procedure before the scanning session. We also encouraged them to first undergo a “mock scan” in our mock scanner to familiarize themselves with the setting and ensure preparedness for the real scan. Not all participants opted to complete the mock scanning session, particularly those who participated in prior MRI research studies.

MRI Scanning

MRI scanning was performed at the Richard M. Lucas Service Center for Imaging on the campus of Stanford University. For resting-state fMRI scans, participants were instructed to close their eyes and let their mind wander.

MRI Modalities and Scan Parameters

MRI data shared include: MPRAGE and resting state fMRI. Please see attachment below for specific scan parameters.

MRI Data Quality

MRI data were quality-checked to ensure usability. Both structural and functional images were visually inspected for artifacts. Only fMRI data with max displacement < 6mm and < 15% volumes repaired were shared. Our repair pipeline included spike regression as well as adjustment for rotation changes. The process assumes that the brain is 6.5 cm in radius and then for the rotational angle in each direction (pitch, roll, yaw) computes the corresponding location at each time point. These values are combined with the translational location at each time point, by taking the square root of the sum of the squares of all six values. i.e. sqrt(x^2+ y^2 + z^2 + pitch^2 + roll^2 + yaw^2). These are used to compute the total displacement, scan-to-scan movement, and number of volumes repaired.

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Investigators and Affiliations

Marjorie Solomon, Ph.D.1,2, Anne Smith, Ph.D. (consultants: Drs. Cameron Carter, Ph.D.1, Michael Frank, Ph.D.3)

  1. UC Davis Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science
  2. MIND Institute
  3. Brown University Department of Cognitive Science

Acknowledgements

We thank all participants and their families.

Funding

  • National Institute of Mental Health (1R21MH099250-01; The Neural Substrates of Higher Level Learning in Autism).

Publications Related to This Dataset

  • Solomon, M., McCauley, J.B., Iosif, A.M, Carter, C.S., & Ragland, J.D. (2016). Cognitive control and episodic memory in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Neuropsychologia, 89, 31-41.
  • Solomon, M.; Ragland, J.D.; Niendam, T.A.; Lesh, T. A.;Beck, J.S.; Matter, J.C.; Frank, M.J. & Carter, C.S. (2015). Atypical Learning in Autism Spectrum Disorders: An fMRI study of Transitive Inference. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 54(11), 947-955.
  • Oswald, T. M., Beck, J.S., McCauley, J.B., Gilhooly, L.J., John C. Matter, Iosif, A.M., & Solomon, M. (2016). Cognitive Factors and Anxiety Symptomology Predictive of Mathematics Achievement in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Autism Research, 9(4), 480-490.
  • Goodlin-Jones, B.,McCauley, J.B., Beck, J.S. & Solomon, M. (submitted). Do parents and children agree? Self- and parent- reports of psychopathology in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders and typical development.

Sample Size

Total: N = 32 (age range 12-18 years)

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD): n = 18 (12-18 years)

Typical Control (TC): n = 14 (12-17 years)

Relation to ABIDE I and Other Data Sharing Initiatives

Relation to ABIDE I

This site did not participate in ABIDE I. This is a new independent site and data collection.

Relation to NDAR

All the data have been uploaded to NDAR and NDAR GUIDs are shared.

Diagnostics and Phenotypic Assessments

Inclusion Criteria

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

Included participants had a prior diagnosis of Autistic or Asperger's Disorder according to DSM-IV-TR or DSM-5; reached cutoff scores for ASD on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Scale (ADOS-G)1; a total score >15 on the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) life time versions2. They were 12-18 years old.

Typical Controls (TC)

TC participants had no history of ASD by parent report or other neurodevelopmental disorders; a total score < 11 on the SCQ lifetime version; and aged 12-18 years.

Exclusion Criteria

Participants from both groups were excluded if they had co-occurring neurological disorder; seizures; psychotropic medication use (dopaminergic medications and serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors); contraindications to MRI (claustrophobia, noise sensitivity, metal in body, pregnancy); specific learning disorders by parent report. Exclusion criteria for ASD subjects included diagnoses with known genetic etiologies, and current parent-reported diagnoses of Major Depressive Disorder, Anxiety Disorders, or Psychosis.

Assessments and Procedures

Recruitment

Participants were recruited through referrals from psychiatrists, psychologists, speech and language pathologists, advocacy groups, state-funded centers for persons with developmental disabilities in our geographic area, as well as the MIND Institute's Subject Tracking System database. Informed consent and child assent were obtained from all participants and their caregivers in accordance with the University of California, Davis Institutional Review Board.

Estimated IQ

IQ scores (full, verbal, and performance IQ) were obtained for both groups of participants using the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence-Second Edition (WASI-II)3. All participants had FSIQs greater than 75.

Handedness

Handedness was determined by using child self-report.

Medication Information

Participants taking antipsychotic medications and serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors over the three months prior to the scan as reported by their parents were excluded. The one participant taking psychostimulants had them washed out for 48 hours prior to scanning.

Psychiatric Comorbidity in ASD

Information on potential psychiatric comorbidity was collected using the parent report of the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA)4. A comorbidity label was assigned to those children whose parent ratings met clinical cutoff (T Score >69) on the clinical scales of the Child Behavioral Checklist (CBCL) of the ASEBA.

Additional Phenotypic Information

All participants' parents were asked to complete the Social Responsiveness Scale-second edition (SRS-2)5, Social Communication Questionnaire Lifetime version (SCQ)2, Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R)6, 7, and Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition (BASC-2)8.

References

  1. Gotham K, Risi S, Pickles A, Lord C. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule: revised algorithms for improved diagnostic validity. J Autism Dev Disord. 2007;37(4):613-627
  2. Rutter M, Bailey A, Lord C. The social communication questionnaire: Manual: Western Psychological Services; 2003.
  3. Wechsler D, Hsiao-pin C. WASI-II: Wechsler abbreviated scale of intelligence: Pearson; 2011.
  4. Achenbach T, Rescorla L. Manual for the ASEBA school-age forms & profiles: an integrated system of multi-informant assessment Burlington, VT: University of Vermont. Research Center for Children, Youth, & Families. 2001.
  5. Constantino JN, Gruber CP. Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS). Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services; 2007.
  6. Lam KS, Aman MG. The Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised: independent validation in individuals with autism spectrum disorders. J Autism Dev Disord. 2007;37(5):855-866.
  7. Bodfish JW, Symons FJ, Parker DE, Lewis MH. Varieties of repetitive behavior in autism: comparisons to mental retardation. J Autism Dev Disord. 2000;30(3):237-243.
  8. Reynolds CR, Kamphaus RW. BASC-2: Behavior assessment system for children; 2004.

Scan Procedures and Parameters

Preparation for the MRI Scan

All participants were trained to scanning environment and task fMRI procedures using a mock scanner on the day of the scan.

MRI Scanning

Structural and functional images were acquired on a Siemens 3T TIM Trio (Munich, Germany) MRI scanner, with an eight-channel phased array head coil. Cushions and pre-training in a mock scanner were used to minimize head motion. Earplugs and headphones were used to dampen scanner noise and to enable communication. Resting state data were collected after structural and task-based functional scans. Stimuli were projected onto a screen viewed through a mirror attached to the head coil. During the rest scan, participants were instructed to relax and keep their eyes open.

MRI Modalities and Scan Parameters

MRI data shared include: MPRAGE and resting state fMRI. Please see attachment below for specific scan parameters. Note: For one individual (ID 30004), resting state fMRI data was collected under a slightly different protocol. An additional functional scan parameters file for ID 30004 is attached below.

MRI Data Quality

To maximize potential utility for a broader range of applications by users, all imaging data collected were shared, regardless of motion and any type of quality.

Downloads

Investigators and Affiliations

Mirella Dapretto, Ph.D.1,3,4,5 and Susan Y. Bookheimer, Ph.D.2,3,4,5

  1. Ahmanson-Lovelace Brain Mapping Center, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA
  2. Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA
  3. Department of Psychiatry & Biobehavioral Sciences, Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA
  4. Interdepartmental Neuroscience Program, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA
  5. David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA

Acknowledgements

Hilary Bowman, Rosemary McCarron and Leanna Hernandez

Funding

  • NICHD P50 HD055784

Publications Related to This Dataset

The following publications included some of the data shared in this data collection:
  • Rudie JD, Hernandez LM, Brown JA, Beck-Pancer D, Colich N, Gorrindo P, Geschwind DH, Bookheimer SY, Levitt P, Dapretto M (2012): Autism-Associated Variant in MET Impacts Functional and Structural Brain Networks. Neuron, 75(5), 904-915.
  • Rudie JD, Brown JA, Beck-Pancer D, Hernandez LM, Dennis EL, Thompson PM, Bookheimer SY, Dapretto M (2013): Altered Functional and Structural Brain Network Organization in Autism. Neuroimage: Clinical, 2, 79-94.

Sample Size

Total: N = 32 (age range 8-15 years)

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD): n = 16 (8-15 years)

Typical Controls (TC): n = 16 (8 - 14 years)

Relation to ABIDE I and Other Data Sharing Initiatives

Relation to ABIDE I

This site has participated in ABIDE I. The data included in this collection represents newly collected data from independent participants. The inclusion criteria and sequence parameters were similar to the original UCLA Sample 1 and Sample 2 collections of ABIDE I, as such they can also be merged, if needed.

Relation to NDAR

All the data have also been uploaded to NDAR and NADR GUID are provided.

Diagnostics and Phenotypic Assessments

Inclusion Criteria

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

Inclusion as a participant with ASD required a clinical diagnosis of ASD on best clinical judgment, and/or the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R)1, and/or the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (ADOS-G)2. Most subjects met criteria on both the ADOS-G and ADI-R, though participants who met only on the ADOS and clinical judgment were also included. Participants also had no prior or concurrent diagnosis of any other neurological (e.g., epilepsy, Tourette's syndrome) or major psychiatric (e.g., childhood-onset schizophrenia) disorder per parent report. Being fully verbal and an IQ>70 were los required for all.

Typical Controls (TC)

No prior or concurrent diagnosis of any neurological, psychiatric, or developmental disorders per parent report. In addition, to be included in this group, participants were required absence of first- or second-degree relative with ASD per parent report. Being fully verbal and an IQ>70 were los required for all.

Exclusion Criteria

For all participants history of seizures, loss of consciousness for more than five minutes, tic disorder or involuntary movements, any reported known genetic, neurological, or psychiatric disorder were exclusionary.

Assessment Procedures

Recruitment

Both groups were recruited through a variety of methods including the dissemination of flyers throughout the greater Los Angeles area (via community/youth organizations, schools, etc.), as well as through radio ads, and word of mouth. Informed assent and consent were obtained from all participants and their caregivers using IRB-approved language and procedures.

Estimated IQ

We obtained estimates of intelligence (total, performance, and verbal IQ) using the four subtests of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI)3, Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence-Second Edition (WASI-II)4, or the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV, Full Scale)5. In one case, the Differential Ability Scales, Second Edition (DAS-II)6 was used. This specific information is reflected in the shared phenotypic dataset.

Handedness

Handedness was assessed via parental reports on a questionnaire used in the lab.

Medication Information

Information about any medication use was collected at the time of the scan. We did not ask participants to be off stimulants for the scan, and participants were stable on their medication dosage for at least 6 weeks prior to the scan.

Psychiatric Comorbidity

Data on comorbidity was not collected.

Additional Phenotypic Information

No additional phenotypic information are available.

References

  1. Lord C, Rutter M, Le Couteur A. Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised: a revised version of a diagnostic interview for caregivers of individuals with possible pervasive developmental disorders. J Autism Dev Disord. 1994;24(5):659-685.
  2. Lord C, Rutter M, DiLavore PC, Risi S. Autism diagnostic observation schedule-WPS (ADOS-WPS). Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services. 1999.
  3. Wechsler D. Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI). San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation; 1999
  4. Wechsler D, Hsiao-pin C. WASI-II: Wechsler abbreviated scale of intelligence: Pearson; 2011.
  5. Wechsler D. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-WISC-IV: Psychological Corporation; 2003
  6. Elliot C. Differential Ability Scales-II (DAS-II). San Antonio, TX: Pearson; 2007.

Scan Procedures and Parameters

Preparation for the MRI Scan

Most participants (particularly those younger than 10 yrs of age) underwent a mock scan approximately one or two months prior to the actual fMRI session. Older participants (and/or participants who previously underwent MRI) typically received only standard written and verbal description at consent/assent time, as well as verbal instructions prior to and during scan session.

MRI Scanning

Before starting the resting-state scan, participants were instructed as follows: "Relax and think about whatever you want. Keep your eyes open and keep your head still." A white screen with a black fixation cross in the middle was presented. For some participants, the MPRAGE and resting state scans were performed on separate dates. For this reason, when age at MPRAGE is listed, the age at resting scan differs. This information is specified for each participant in the shared phenotypic dataset.

MRI Modalities and Scan Parameters

MRI data shared include: MPRAGE and resting state fMRI. For the specific scan parameters, please see link below.

MRI Data Quality

Consistent with the ABIDE consortium policy, to maximize potential utility for a boarder range of applications, all imaging data collected were shared regardless of motion and quality.

Downloads

Investigators and Affiliations

Lucina Q. Uddin, Ph.D.1,2

  1. Department of Psychology, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL
  2. Neuroscience Program, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL

Acknowledgements

Willa Voorhies, Kristafor Farrant, Paola Odriozola, Dina Dajani, Casey Burrows, Taylor Bolt, Jason Nomi and Shruti Vij

Funding

  • This work was supported by awards K01MH092288 and R01MH107549 from the National Institute of Mental Health, a Slifka/Ritvo Innovation in Autism Research Award from the International Society for Autism Research, and a NARSAD Young Investigator Award to LQU.

Publications Related to This Dataset

    None.

Sample Size

Total: N = 28 (age range 7-13 years)

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD): n = 13 (7-13 years)

Typical Controls (TC): n = 15 (7 - 13 years)

Relation to ABIDE I and Other Data Sharing Initiatives

Relation to ABIDE I

This site did not participate in ABIDE I.

Relation to NDAR

Some of the data have been uploaded to NDAR and NDAR GUIDs are shared.

Diagnostics and Phenotypic Assessments

Inclusion Criteria

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

All children have prior clinical diagnosis of ASD by an experienced clinician. Diagnosis was confirmed using the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, second edition (ADOS-2)1. All participants were fully verbal and fluent in English.

Typical Controls (TC)

No prior diagnosis of any neurological, psychiatric or developmental disorders, or a first-degree relative with ASD per parent report. All participants were fully verbal and fluent in English. Participants scored within 1.0 standard deviation of the mean on all subscales of the Child Behavioral Checklist (CBCL)2 and a score < 11 on the Social and Communications Questionnaire (SCQ)3.

Exclusion Criteria

Exclusion criteria included a) history of claustrophobia, previous head injury, serious neurological or medical illness, psychiatric illness, developmental disabilities, sensory impairments such as vision or hearing loss, birth weights less than 2000 grams and/or gestational ages of less than 34 weeks; b) presence of contraindication for MRI (pacemaker, vascular stents, metallic ear tubes, metal implants or braces); c) a Full Scale IQ < 70 Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI)4 or Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC)5.

ASD specific exclusion criteria: evidence of a genetic, metabolic, or infectious etiology for their autism on the basis of physical examination and neurologic history.

TC specific exclusion criteria: a) Negative personal and family history (first degree) of developmental cognitive disorders and neuropsychiatric disorders as reported by one parent, based on the Family History-RDC and Interview Guide modified for DSM-IV. b) historical evidence of significant difficulty during pregnancy, labor, delivery, or immediate neonatal period, or abnormal developmental milestones as determined by neurologic history and examination. c) evidence, by history or testing, of a learning disability.

Assessment Procedures

Recruitment

Both ASD and TC participants were recruited via flyers and Facebook advertisements. Participants with ASD were also recruited through referrals and resources from the University of Miami Center for Autism and Related Disabilities (CARD). All advertisements were approved by the University of Miami Institutional Review Board (IRB). Written informed parental consent and child assent was obtained from all participants in accordance with University of Miami IRB.

Estimated IQ

Estimates of intelligence (full, performance and verbal), were obtained using the four subtests of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, second edition (WASI-II)4. In the case of one participant, IQ was obtained using the performance and verbal subscales of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, fourth edition (WISC-IV)5.

Handedness

The Edinburgh handedness questionnaire6 was used to assess handedness (right, left, mixed).

Medication Information

Information on current medications was obtained at time of enrollment in the study via parent report. Participants with ASD taking stimulants were not asked to be off stimulants for the scan.

Psychiatric Comorbidity

Data on comorbidity was not collected.

Additional Phenotypic Information

Standardized questionnaires were administered to further characterize participants with respect to Autism related traits. The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF)7, the Repetitive Behaviors Scale - Revised (RBS-R)8 and the Behavior Assessment System for Children, second edition (BASC-II)9.

References

  1. Lord C, Rutter M, DiLavore PC, Risi S, Gotham K, Bishop S. Autism diagnostic observation schedule: ADOS-2: Western Psychological Services Los Angeles, CA; 2012.
  2. Achenbach T, Edelbrock C. Manual for the Child Behavior Checklist and Revised Child Behavior Profile. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry 1983.
  3. Rutter M, Bailey A, Lord C. The social communication questionnaire: Manual: Western Psychological Services; 2003.
  4. Wechsler D. Wechsler abbreviated scale of intelligence-second edition (WASI-II): Pearson; 2011.
  5. Wechsler D. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-WISC-IV: Psychological Corporation; 2003.
  6. Oldfield RC. The assessment and analysis of handedness: the Edinburgh inventory. Neuropsychologia. 1971;9(1):97-113.
  7. Gioia GA, Isquith PK, Guy SC, Kenworthy L. Test review behavior rating inventory of executive function. Child Neuropsychology. 2000;6(3):235-238.
  8. Lam KS, Aman MG. The Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised: independent validation in individuals with autism spectrum disorders. J Autism Dev Disord. 2007;37(5):855-866.
  9. Reynolds CR, Kamphaus RW. BASC-2: Behavior assessment system for children; 2004.

Scan Procedures and Parameters

Preparation for the MRI Scan

To reduce anxiety, participants received a "social narrative" storyboard with pictures and explanations of the experiment prior to participating in the study. Some participants also viewed a video of a child participating in the MRI scan accompanied by a voice-over narrative. All participants underwent a simulated trial inside the mock scanner and heard sample MRI noises. To limit motion during the scan, all participants completed a short motion training task using MoTrack ® software inside the mock scanner

MRI Scanning

MRI scans, performed using a GE Healthcare 3-Tesla scanner, were conducted on a separate visit following the neuropsychological session. During the resting state fMRI scan participants were asked to relax with their eyes closed and let their mind wander freely for 10 minutes. A black screen was projected during the resting-state scan. Resting-state scans were acquired along with MPRAGE scans prior to any task-based experiments.

MRI Modalities and Scan Parameters

MRI data shared include: MPRAGE and resting state fMRI. Please see attachment below for specific scan parameters.

MRI Data Quality

To maximize potential utility for a broader range of applications by users, all imaging data collected were shared, regardless of motion and any type of quality.

Downloads

Investigators and Affiliations

Jeffrey S. Anderson1,2,3,4; Jared A. Nielsen2,5; Alyson L. Froehlich5; Molly B. DuBray2,5; Michael A. Ferguson4; T. Jason Druzgal6; Annahir N. Cariello5; Jason R. Cooperrider2,5; Brandon A. Zielinski7,8; Caitlin Ravichandran9,10; P. Thomas Fletcher3,11,12; Andrew L. Alexander13; Erin D. Bigler3; Nicholas Lange9,10; Janet E. Lainhart2,3,5

  1. Division of Neuroradiology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT
  2. Interdepartmental Program in Neuroscience, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT
  3. The Brain Institute at the University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT
  4. Department of Bioengineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT
  5. Department of Psychiatry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT
  6. Department of Radiology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA
  7. Department of Pediatrics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT
  8. Division of Child Neurology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT
  9. Neurostatistics Laboratory, McLean Hospital 10 Departments of Psychiatry and Biostatistics, Harvard School of Public Health, Cambridge, MA
  10. School of Computing, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT
  11. Scientific Computing and Imaging Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT
  12. Departments of Medical Physics and Psychiatry, and the Waisman Laboratory for Brain Imaging and Behavior, Waisman Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI
  13. Departments of Psychology and Neuroscience Center, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT

Acknowledgements

We would like to acknowledge Melody Johnson, Henry Buswell, and Michael Reading for assistance with data acquisition.

Funding

  • National Institutes of Health [grant numbers K08 MH092697, RO1MH080826, P50MH60450, T32DC008553, R01NS34783]
  • Autism Speaks Mentor-based Predoctoral Fellowship [grant number 1677]
  • University of Utah Multidisciplinary Research Seed Grant
  • NRSA Predoctoral Fellowship [grant number F31 DC010143]
  • Ben B. and Iris M. Margolis Foundation.

Publications Related to This Dataset

Data from typical controls or individuals with ASD who participated in studies contributing to this repository were included in the following publications:
  • Anderson JS, Druzgal TJ, Froehlich A, DuBray MB, Lange N, Alexander AL, Abildskov T, Nielsen JA, Cariello AN, Cooperrider JR, Bigler ED, Lainhart JE. (2011). Decreased interhemispheric connectivity in autism. Cereb. Cortex, 21(5), 1134-1146.
  • Anderson, JS, Nielsen, JA, Froehlich AL, DuBray MB, Druzgal TJ, Cariello AN, Cooperrider JR, Zielinski BA, Ravichandran C, Fletcher PT, Alexander AL, Bigler ED, Lange N, Lainhart JE (2011). Functional Connectivity MRI Classification of Autism. Brain, 134(12):3739-3751.

Sample Size

Total: N = 33 (age range 9-39 years)

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD): n = 17 (9-39 years)

Typical Controls (TC): n = 16 (11 - 16 years)

Relation to ABIDE I and Other Data Sharing Initiatives

Relation to ABIDE I

This site participated in ABIDE I. The present data represent newly collected data from independent participants. The inclusion criteria and sequence parameters were the same as the original USM collection of ABIDE I; as such they can be merged if needed.

Relation to NDAR

This dataset has been uploaded to NDAR and NDAR GUIDs are provided.

Diagnostics and Phenotypic Assessments

Inclusion Criteria

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

Potential participants with ASD were recruited from community sources, including parent support groups, youth groups, schools, social skills groups, and other organizations. Inclusion criteria for individuals with ASD were performance IQ > 70, absence of known medical causes of autism (such as tuberous sclerosis, Fragile X, or neonatal ischemic/hypoxia), no blindness or deafness, and, at the time of ascertainment, no history of seizures, severe head injury, or severe medical problems. Medical causes of autism were excluded by history, physical exam, Fragile-X gene testing, and karyotype. ASD are rigorously diagnosed at the time of ascertainment. Parents were interviewed using the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R)1. All individuals were directly assessed using the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (ADOS-G)2, a semi-structured play and interview session designed to elicit social, communication, and stereotyped repetitive behaviors characteristic of autism. Inclusion as an individual with ASD required meeting full ADOS-G, and DSM-IV-TR criteria for autism at initial ascertainment. All individuals with ASD are personally evaluated by a clinical autism expert (JEL).

Typical Controls (TC)

Inclusion criteria for typical controls were performance IQ > 70, no history of learning disabilities out of proportion to IQ, neurological disorder, severe head injury, neonatal ischemia/hypoxia, substance abuse, psychiatric disorder, or family history of an autism-spectrum disorder in 1st, 2nd, or 3rd degree relatives. TC were group matched to the ASD group relative to age.

Exclusion Criteria

Contraindication to MRI, including claustrophobia, metallic implant, recent tattoo, body weight over 350 pounds, braces, or pacemaker, were exclusion criteria for all participants.

Assessment Procedures

Recruitment

Participants were recruited from the local community (see detailed above). Participants signed a written consent/assent from approved by the University of Utah IRB.

Estimated IQ

We obtained estimates of intelligence (total, performance and verbal IQ) using the four subtests of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI)3, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Third Edition (WAIS-III)4, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV)5, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Third Edition (WISC-III)6, or the Differential Ability Scales (DAS)7. The IQ tests varied depending on the timepoint at which the participant completed the r-fMRI in relation to the time point of the longitudinal study from which the dataset was drawn.

Handedness

We used the 22 item version of the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory8. For each item, participants were asked if they use the right, the left, or both hands to complete a particular task. The sum of the right-hand responses minus the sum of the left hand responses divided by the total number of unilateral responses multiplied by 100 provided a total handedness score ranging from 100 (strongest right handedness) to -100 (strongest left handedness).

Medication Information

Medication information was collected from participants for adult participants or from a parent for all participants under 21 years. Medication information is current to within 3 months of the scan date in all cases.

Psychiatric Comorbidity

Psychiatric comorbidity was not assessed systematically.

Additional Phenotypic Information

We administered standardized questionnaires to further characterize participants with respect to various symptom domains. Specifically, for child participants, a parent completed the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS)-Child version9. For adult participants, an informant identified by the participant completed the SRS-Adult version9. Raw total scores are provided in the shared dataset.

References

  1. Le Couteur A, Lord C, Rutter M. The autism diagnostic interview-revised (ADI-R). Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services. 2003.
  2. Gotham K, Risi S, Pickles A, Lord C. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule: revised algorithms for improved diagnostic validity. J Autism Dev Disord. 2007;37(4):613-627.
  3. Wechsler D. Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI). San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation; 1999.
  4. Wechsler D. WAIS-III: Administration and scoring manual: Wechsler adult intelligence scale: Psychological Corporation; 1997.
  5. Wechsler D, Coalson DL, Raiford SE. WAIS-IV: Wechsler adult intelligence scale: Pearson San Antonio, TX; 2008.
  6. Sattler JM. Assessment of children: WISC-III and WPPSI-R supplement: Jerome M. Sattler; 1992.
  7. Elliott CD. The Differential Ability Scales. Contemporary intellectual assessment: Theories, tests, and issues. 1997:183-208.
  8. Oldfield RC. The assessment and analysis of handedness: the Edinburgh inventory. Neuropsychologia. 1971;9(1):97-113.
  9. Constantino JN, Gruber CP. Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS). Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services; 2007.

Scan Procedures and Parameters

Preparation for the MRI Scan

We did not use any mock scan or additional preparation beyond standard written and verbal description during consent/assent as well as verbal instructions prior to and during the scan session.

MRI Scanning

Images were collected as part of a longitudinal functional and structural MRI study where images were acquired from participants about every 2-3 years. This represents the first time point at which resting functional MRI scans were obtained. In the same scan session, additional structural MRI scans, 2 language task fMRI series, and diffusion tensor image sequence were also collected, all on the same scanner. Resting state fMRI data were collected with the following subject instructions: "Keep your eyes open and remain awake, letting thoughts pass through your mind without focusing on any particular mental activity." All resting state fMRI images were collected prior to any task-based fMRI and any DTI sequences.

MRI Modalities and Scan Parameters

MRI data shared include: MPRAGE and resting state fMRI. For the specific scan parameters, please see links below.

MRI Data Quality

Consistent with the ABIDE consortium policy, to maximize potential utility for a broader range of applications by users, all imaging data collected were shared, regardless of motion and any type of quality.

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Longitudinal Collections


Investigators and Affiliations

Mirella Dapretto, Ph.D.1,3,4,5 and Susan Y. Bookheimer, Ph.D.2,3,4,5

  1. Ahmanson-Lovelace Brain Mapping Center, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA
  2. Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA
  3. Department of Psychiatry & Biobehavioral Sciences, Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA
  4. Interdepartmental Neuroscience Program, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA
  5. David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA

Acknowledgements

Hilary Bowman, Rosemary McCarron, and Leanna Hernandez, Jeff Rudie, Natalie Colich, Devora Beck-Pancer, Zarrar Shehzad, Jesse Brown.

Funding

  • NICHD P50 HD055784
  • UCLA Autism Center of Excellence
  • NIMH 1R01 HD065280-01

Publications Related to This Dataset

The following publications included some of the data shared in this data collection:
  • Rudie JD, Hernandez LM, Brown JA, Beck-Pancer D, Colich N, Gorrindo P, Geschwind DH, Bookheimer SY, Levitt P, Dapretto M (2012): Autism-Associated Variant in MET Impacts Functional and Structural Brain Networks. Neuron, 75(5), 904-915.
  • RRudie JD, Brown JA, Beck-Pancer D, Hernandez LM, Dennis EL, Thompson PM, Bookheimer SY, Dapretto M (2013): Altered Functional and Structural Brain Network Organization in Autism. Neuroimage: Clinical, 2, 79-94.

Sample Size

Total: N = 21; two time points collected 2 to 4 years apart (age range at Baseline 8-15 years)

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD): n = 14 (age at Baseline 8-15 years)

Typical Controls (TC): n = 7 (age at Baseline 8-15 years)

Relation to ABIDE I and Other Data Sharing Initiatives

Relation to ABIDE I

This site participated in ABIDE I. This is a longitudinal data collection: it includes data from participants shared in ABIDE I as part of either UCLA-Sample 1 and UCLA-Sample 2 (baseline scans or time 1) and their follow-up scans (follow-up scan or time 2) completed 2 to 4 years later. Thus, all data in this specific collection are identified with ABIDE I ID# and include information at baseline (Time 1, ABIDE I data) and follow-up (Time 2, new MRI and phenotypic ABDIE II data).

Relation to NDAR

Some of the follow-up data have also been uploaded to NDAR and thus have NADR GUIDs.

Diagnostics and Phenotypic Assessments

Inclusion Criteria

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

Inclusion at Baseline (Time 1) as a participant with ASD required clinical diagnosis of ASD on best clinical judgment, and/or the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R)1, and/or the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (ADOS-G)2. At baseline (time 1), most subjects met criteria on both the ADOS-G and ADI-R, though participants who met only on the ADOS and clinical judgment were also included. Participants also had no prior or concurrent diagnosis of any other neurological (e.g., epilepsy, Tourette’s syndrome) or major psychiatric (e.g., childhood-onset schizophrenia) disorder per parent report. Being fully verbal and an IQ>70 were also required for all. To be invited at the follow-up scan participants with ASD must have successfully completed a scan in the prior 3.5 years.

Typical Controls (TC)

At Baseline (Time 1), to be included as a TC, participants must have had no prior or current diagnosis of any neurological, psychiatric, or developmental disorders per parent report. In addition, participants must not have a first- or second-degree relative with ASD, per parent report. To be invited to a follow-up scan (Time 2) participants must have successfully completed a scan in the prior 3.5 years.

Exclusion Criteria

At Baseline (Time 1), for all participants: history of seizures, loss of consciousness for more than five minutes, tic disorder or involuntary movements, any reported known genetic, neurological, or major psychiatric disorder were exclusionary. Being fully verbal and an IQ>70 were also required for all.

Assessment Procedures

Recruitment

Participants who successfully completed a MRI scan in our lab at least 2.5-3.5 years prior and who had consented to be contacted about future research were invited to repeat scan.

Estimated IQ

At baseline (Time 1) intelligence (total, performance, and verbal IQ) was estimated using the four subtests of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI)3, Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence-Second Edition (WASI-II)4, or the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV, Full Scale)5. This specific information is reflected in the shared longitudinal phenotypic dataset. Since IQ is stable, it was only collected at baseline (Time 1).

Handedness

At baseline (Time 1), handedness was assessed via parental reports on a questionnaire used in the lab. Given that handedness scores remain stable at this age, we did not collected information on handedness at the time of the follow-up scan (Time 2).

Medication Information

Information about any medication use was collected at the time of each scan (baseline and follow-up scan- i.e., at Time 1 and Time 2). We did not ask participants to be off stimulants for the scan, and participants were stable on their medication dosage for at least six weeks prior to each scan (time 1 and time 2).

Psychiatric Comorbidity

Data on comorbidity was not collected at any time points.

Additional Phenotypic Information

No additional phenotypic information is available.

References

  1. Lord C, Rutter M, Le Couteur A. Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised: a revised version of a diagnostic interview for caregivers of individuals with possible pervasive developmental disorders. J Autism Dev Disord. 1994;24(5):659-685.
  2. Lord C, Rutter M, DiLavore PC, Risi S. Autism diagnostic observation schedule-WPS (ADOS-WPS). Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services. 1999.
  3. Wechsler D. Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI). San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation; 1999
  4. Wechsler D, Hsiao-pin C. WASI-II: Wechsler abbreviated scale of intelligence: Pearson; 2011.
  5. Wechsler D. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-WISC-IV: Psychological Corporation; 2003
  6. Elliot C. Differential Ability Scales-II (DAS-II). San Antonio, TX: Pearson; 2007.

Scan Procedures and Parameters

Preparation for the MRI Scan

Prior to the baseline scan most participants (particularly those younger than 10 yrs of age) underwent a mock scan approximately one or two months prior to the actual fMRI session. Older participants (and/or participants who previously underwent MRI) typically received only standard written and verbal description at consent/assent time, as well as verbal instructions prior to and during scan session.

MRI Scanning

Before starting the resting-state scan, participants were instructed as follows: "Relax and think about whatever you want. Keep your eyes open and keep your head still." A white screen with a black fixation cross in the middle was presented. For some participants, the MPRAGE and resting state scans were performed on separate dates. For this reason, for each baseline (Time 1) and follow-up scan (Time 2), age at MPRAGE is also listed, to indicate when it differs from age at resting scan. This information is specified for each participant in the shared phenotypic dataset.

MRI Modalities and Scan Parameters

MRI data shared include two time points (Time 1 data for this cases were also shared in ABIDE I; Time 2 are newly shared data) for each MPRAGE and resting state-fMRI. Please see links below for specific scan parameters.
MRI data shared include: MPRAGE and resting state fMRI. Please see attachment below for specific scan parameters.

MRI Data Quality

Consistent with the ABIDE consortium policy, to maximize potential utility for a boarder range of applications, all imaging data collected were shared regardless of motion and quality.

Downloads


Investigators and Affiliations

Kirsten O'Hearn1 and Beatriz Luna1

  1. University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA

Acknowledgements

We would like to acknowledge Jennifer Fedor, Andrew Lynn, Nancy Minshew, Patricia McCarroll, Catherine Wright and the staff of Center for Excellence in Autism Research (CeFAR) and the Autism Center of Excellence (ACE), Mark Vignone and the faculty who support the Neuroscience Imaging Center (NIC), and our fellow workers at the Laboratory of Neurocognitive Development (LNCD).

Funding

  • Autism Speaks Grant 04593 (BL)
  • KO1 NIMH MH081191 (KO)
  • NIMH MH67924 (BL)
  • NIH HD55748 (NM)

Publications Related to This Dataset

The following publications included some of the data (either baseline, follow-up scans or both) shared in this data collection:
  • Di Martino A, Yan CG, Li Q, Denio E, Castellanos FX, Alaerts K, Anderson JS, Assaf M, Bookheimer SY, Dapretto M, Deen B, Delmonte S, Dinstein I, Ertl-Wagner B, Fair DA, Gallagher L, Kennedy DP, Keown CL, Keysers C, Lainhart JE, Lord C, Luna B, Minshew NJ, Monk CS, Mueller S, Muller RA, Nebel MB, Nigg JT, O'Hearn K, Pelphrey KA, Peltier SJ, Rudie JD, Sunaert S, Thioux M, Tyszka JM, Uddin LQ, Verhoeven JS, Wenderoth N, Wiggins JL, Mostofsky SH, Milham MP. The autism brain imaging data exchange: towards a large-scale evaluation of the intrinsic brain architecture in autism. Mol Psychiatry. 2014 Jun;19(6):659-67.
  • Morrett L, O'Hearn K, Luna B, Ghuman, A. Altered Gesture and Speech Production in ASD Detract From In-Person Communicative Quality. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 2016 Mar; 46(3):998-1012.
  • Padmanabhan A, Lynn A, Foran W, Luna B, O'Hearn K. Age related changes in striatal resting state functional connectivity in autism. Front Hum Neurosci. 2013 Nov 28;7:814.
  • O'Hearn K, Tanaka J, Lynn A, Fedor J, Minshew N, Luna B. Developmental plateau in visual object processing during adolescence in autism. Brain Cogn. 2014 Oct;90:124-34. doi: 10.1016/j.bandc.2014.06.004. Epub 2014 Jul 12.
  • O'Hearn K, Kohli, D, Lynn A, Fedor J., Luna B. Which details matter? Age-related changes help to explain inconsistent results on visual processing in ASD. Manuscript currently under review, Autism Research
  • Lynn A, Padmanabhan A, Simmonds D, Foran W, Hallquist M, Luna B, O'Hearn K. Atypical age-related functional connectivity changes underlying face recognition in autism. Manuscript under review, Developmental Science.
  • Fedor J, Lynn A, Foran W, DiCicco-Bloom J, Luna B, O'Hearn K. Patterns of fixation during face recognition: Differences in autism across age. Manuscript under revision.

Sample Size

Total: N = 17; two time points collected 1 to 2 years apart (age range at Baseline 9-18 years)

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD): n = 9 (at Baseline 9-18 years)

Typical Controls (TC): n = 8 (at Baseline 9-18 years)

Relation to ABIDE I and Other Data Sharing Initiatives

Relation to ABIDE I

This site has participated in ABIDE I. This is a longitudinal data collection: it includes data from participants shared in ABIDE I (baseline scans or Time 1) and their follow-up scans (Time 2) completed in the time interval between 1 and 2 years from their baseline scan. Thus, all data are identified with ABIDE I ID# and include information on baseline (Time 1, ABIDE I MRI and phenotypic data) and follow-up (Time 2 new MRI and limited phenotypic information).

Relation to NDAR

These data have not be previously uploaded to NDAR.

Other

Some of these data have been also shared with the ENIGMA-ASD metanalytic project.

Diagnostics and Phenotypic Assessments

Inclusion Criteria

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

At baseline (Time 1), inclusion as a participant with ASD required meeting cutoff criteria for ASD based on the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised1 and/or the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic2, and an expert clinical opinion on DSM-IV-TR Autism diagnosis. Participants with DSM-IV-TR Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS) or Asperger's syndrome (i.e., no language delay evident) were excluded, as were those with full-scale IQ scores < 80 on the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence3 or those known to have an associated disorder such as tuberous sclerosis or fragile-X syndrome. To be invited for the follow-up scan participants with ASD must have successfully completed a scan in the prior 2 years and agreed to be contacted for a follow-up study.

Typical Controls (TC)

At baseline (Time 1) to be included as TDC, individuals required no history of head trauma, birth complications, seizures, learning disability, or psychiatric disorder in themselves or in their first-degree relatives. At baseline, TDC were matched individually to the participants with autism on age (within 1.5 y in children, 3.5 y in adults), full-scale IQ (12 points) and gender. To be invited for the follow-up scan TDC must have successfully completed a scan in the prior 2 years and agreed to be contacted for a follow-up study.

Exclusion Criteria

At baseline (Time 1) and follow-up (Time 2), for all participants, head injury with loss of consciousness over an hour, a vision problem or eye-movement problem (such as lazy eye, double vision, color blindness), a history of drug or alcohol abuse, epilepsy, meningitis, encephalitis, diabetes, any known genetic or neurological disorders, and a full-scale IQ < 80 were exclusionary. Additionally, for the MRI, participants were excluded if they had any non-removable metal in their bodies, weighed more than 300 pounds, or were claustrophobic or uncomfortable in small spaces.

Assessment Procedures

Recruitment

At baseline (Time 1), individuals with Autistic Disorder were referred from the Center for Excellence in Autism Research (CeFAR) and the Autism Center of Excellence (ACE). At baseline, TC were recruited from previous studies at the LNCD or by fliers and announcements. Informed consent and assent was obtained from all participants and/or their legal guardians prior to the study, which was approved by the Institutional Review Board at the University of Pittsburgh. Participants who successfully completed an MRI scan in our lab in the prior 2 years and who had consented to be contacted about future research were invited to participate in the follow-up scan at Time 2.

Estimated IQ

At baseline (Time 1), we obtained estimates of intelligence (total, performance, and verbal IQ) using the four subtests of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI)3. Given that IQ scores remain stable over time, we did not repeat this testing at the time of the follow-up scan (Time 2).

Handedness

At baseline (Time 1), handedness was collected from the ACE project, which used the Annett Hand Preference Questionnaire. Given that handedness scores remain stable with age, we did not collect information on handedness at the time of the follow-up scan (Time 2).

Medication Information

At baseline (Time 1), we collected history of psychoactive medication at the time of screening (within a year from the scanning session), and again at time of scan. Here we reported information on psychoactive medication collected at time of scan (see link to data file and /or databases). We did not ask participants to withhold any medication use prior to scan.

Psychiatric Comorbidity

Psychiatric comorbidity in ASD was not systematically assessed.

Additional Phenotypic Information

At baseline (Time 1) and follow-up (Time 2), participants were tested on a wide range of visual tasks, including face and object recognition, at a separate behavioral visit.

References

  1. Lord C, Rutter M, Le Couteur A. Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised: a revised version of a diagnostic interview for caregivers of individuals with possible pervasive developmental disorders. J Autism Dev Disord. 1994;24(5):659-685.
  2. Lord C, Risi S, Lambrecht L, Cook Jr EH, Leventhal BL, DiLavore PC, Pickles A, Rutter M. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule—Generic: A standard measure of social and communication deficits associated with the spectrum of autism. Journal of autism and developmental disorders. 2000;30(3):205-223.
  3. Wechsler D. Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI). San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation; 1999.

Scan Procedures and Parameters

Preparation for the MRI Scan

At each scan appointment (Time 1 and 2), upon arrival to the imaging center, participants were screened for metal and trained with a mock MRI scanner. MRI sounds from the real scanner were played by an audio system while the subject was in the mock scanner. Next, participants were instructed on how to perform a task administered in the scanner before the resting state session.

MRI Scanning

While in the scanner participants completed memory tasks, followed by structural scans. The last run of the scan session was the rest fMRI sequence in which participants were instructed to close their eyes and asked not to fall asleep.

MRI Modalities and Scan Parameters

MRI data shared include two time points (Time 1 data for this cases were also shared in ABIDE I; Time 2 are newly shared data) for each MPRAGE and resting state-fMRI. Please see links below for specific scan parameters.

MRI Data Quality

We submitted all collected data, regardless of movement/quality.

Downloads